|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 11 | Page : 595-598
Unexplained facial scar: Child abuse or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome?
Bahareh Abtahi-Naeini1, Javad Shapouri2, Mohsen Masjedi3, Ali Saffaei4, Mohsen Pourazizi5
1 Department of Dermatology, Medicine Students' Research Committee, Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Pediatric, Qom University of Medical Science, Qom, Iran
3 Department of Immunology, School of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4 Pharmacy Students' Research Committee, School of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
5 Students' Research Committee, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||26-Nov-2014|
Students' Research Committee, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Context: Child abuse is a serious problem, and its physical manifestations can be mimicked by certain diseases and conditions. These conditions can include genetic, congenital and other disorders that may result in poor weight gain, bone fractures or skin lesions that look like bruises or burns. Case Report: This paper reports the case of a seven-year-old girl with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), which was misdiagnosed as child abuse. This child was referred to us for treatment of an unexplained facial scar that was alleged to be the result of child abuse. Conclusion: When unusual skin presentations are observed, dermatologists should consider the possibility of child abuse to protect the child. Furthermore, they should be aware of the cutaneous abnormalities that mimic injuries associated with abuse to avoid the unnecessary reporting of child abuse.
Keywords: Child abuse, Ehlers-danlos syndrome, Facial scar
|How to cite this article:|
Abtahi-Naeini B, Shapouri J, Masjedi M, Saffaei A, Pourazizi M. Unexplained facial scar: Child abuse or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome?. North Am J Med Sci 2014;6:595-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Abtahi-Naeini B, Shapouri J, Masjedi M, Saffaei A, Pourazizi M. Unexplained facial scar: Child abuse or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome?. North Am J Med Sci [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Sep 20];6:595-8. Available from: http://www.najms.org/text.asp?2014/6/11/595/145482
| Introduction|| |
Child abuse is a public health issue that has significant social and family impacts.  Although child abuse is a real problem, many physical illnesses cause symptoms that may have the appearance of child abuse. There are several medical conditions that mimic the physical manifestations of child abuse. These conditions include genetic, congenital and other disorders that may result in the bone fractures or skin lesions that look like bruises or burns.  Although child abuse must always be suspected when the child has unusual marks or injuries that do not match the given history,  but it is necessary to distinguish such abuse from the results of certain diseases. 
The skin is the first organ that is affected by physical aggression, and it shows the most frequently recognizable forms of abuse. ,,]
About 90% of the victims of physical abuse show skin lesions on examination.  These lesions include bruises, lacerations, abrasions, human bites, scars and burns, which mimic abusive injuries. 
This paper reports the case of a seven-year-old girl with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), which was mistaken as a case of the child abuse. There are no high-quality studies that have examined the differences between underlying skin diseases and child abuse. We discuss briefly how to distinguish between the physical results of actual child abuse and the results of diseases that mimic the results of child abuse.
| Case Presentation|| |
A seven-year-old girl, who had bruises and scars predominantly all over her face [Figure 1], lower extremities and on her body was referred by a forensic expert. She lived with her mother, and her father had passed away. The child was evaluated in the pediatric clinic and child abuse was suspected as the cause of the bruises and scars, and hence the child was admitted to the pediatric ward for evaluation.
|Figure 1: Typical features of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (wide atrophic facial scars)|
Click here to view
The mother was significantly upset by the suggestion that child abuse may have occurred and refused to allow her daughter to remain in the clinic for observation. The child was born by normal vaginal delivery and there were no complications associated with her birth. On examination, the child appeared normal.
Dermatologic examinations revealed that the child had very smooth, lax skin, but she had wide, atrophic, cigarette paper-like scars on both shins. Other clinical findings included hyperextensible skin [Figure 2], increased range of motion of the joints, long fingers, toes that bruised easily and fragile skin that had a brownish discoloration [Figure 3]. There were hyper mobile joints with the score of 6/9 on the Beighton scale.
|Figure 2: Cutaneous hyperextensibility: Cutaneous hyperextensibility is one of the cardinal features of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome|
Click here to view
There were no joint dislocations. She had no major health concerns. Other investigations, such as complete blood count and routine examination of the stool proved normal, and the urine and serum levels of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine were within the normal limits. Reviewing her family history indicated hyperextensible joints and skin in her father's family. Based on the characteristics of the clinical findings and the positive family history, she was thought to have classic EDS, type I or II. Thus, the EDS were included in the differential diagnosis to avoid possible harm to the family that could result from an allegation of abuse. The child was returned to her mother after the correct diagnosis.
|Figure 3: Easy bruising, characteristic brownish discoloration of the skin, especially in exposed areas, such as the shins|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
This paper reported the case of a seven-year-old girl with EDS, which was misdiagnosed as child abuse. Violence against children tends to be an uncomfortable topic for many doctors, in part due to the lack of training in recognizing and dealing with the problem. In general, the reasons for this uncomfortable topic are:
- Little guidance or no training in recognizing the problem and
- Not understanding its true dimensions. 
Although, the injury patterns in an abusive situation against the accidental trauma have been described in the literature, there is a paucity of information that differentiates the effects of EDS from child abuse. , When a common illness mimics child abuse, it is typically diagnosed, but this often is not the case for rare diseases. The physicians often misdiagnose child abuse with other rare diseases. The morbidity and mortality of a missed diagnosis of child abuse have been well documented. 
When child abuse is misdiagnosed, there are emotional, psychological, and financial burdens on both the family and the child. Hence, knowing of the cutaneous manifestations of child abuse is critical to the accurate identification and reporting of injuries that result from abuse.  Physicians, especially dermatologists and pediatrician, should know the signs of the physical abuse and the differential diagnoses (skin and/or systemic diseases) that mimic or simulate the main skin lesions resulting from physical violence to avoid mistaken diagnoses. This is vitally important because mistakenly accusing parents of child abuse is devastating, and it is highly unlikely that an atmosphere of trust can ever be re-established. It is difficult to diagnose conditions that have been mistaken for the parental maltreatment, and when the diagnosis is incorrect, there are devastating consequences for the families. 
[Table 1] shows some of the signs and symptoms of the medical conditions that have been mistaken for the abuse [Table 1].  EDS is one of the conditions that may be mistaken for child abuse due to the ecchymosis and scars. 
EDS belongs to a heterogeneous group of collagen disorders that are characterized by the hyperextensibility and fragility of the skin, with easy bruising and hypermobility of the joints. ,
It is a rare genetic disorder that affects only 1 in 5000 people, and it is recognized frequently by pediatricians and dermatologists.  This illness can easily ne misdiagnosed because the cutaneous findings mimic traumatic injuries. 
The additional findings in EDS, such as fragile skin that bruises or tears easily, poor and slow healing of wounds, and widened atrophic scars with the formation of cigarette paper-like scars (papyraceous) healing, easily can lead to a diagnosis of child abuse.  In EDS, connective tissue disorders and the weakness of blood vessels lead to bleeding. An example in which an erroneous diagnosis of Shaken Baby Syndrome was made initially was described by Drs. S. M. Omen and D. L. Roberts. ,
The fragile skin is manifested by the splitting of the dermis following relatively minor trauma, especially over pressure points (knees, elbows) and areas prone to trauma (shins, forehead, and chin). The fragility of the skin may cause dehiscence of the sutured incisions in the skin or mucosa. 
Easy bruising is a common finding and manifests as spontaneous ecchymoses, frequently recurring in the same areas and causing a characteristic brownish discoloration of the skin, especially in the exposed areas such as the shins and knees. There is a tendency toward prolonged bleeding (e.g., after brushing of the teeth) in spite of a normal coagulation status.  Thus, EDS should be included in the list of childhood diseases that can be misinterpreted as the child abuse. The physician should consider that error or omission may cost the lives of children and undue child abuse charges could cost the reputation of an innocent adult. 
| Conclusion|| |
Dermatologist should consider the diagnosis of child abuse in the presence of unusual skin presentations to protect the child. Furthermore, they should be aware of the cutaneous abnormalities that mimic abusive injuries to avoid the unnecessary reporting of child abuse.
| References|| |
Chen YW, Yeh L, Feng JY. Concept analysis of child abuse. Hu Li Za Zhi 2009;56:71-6.
Wardinsky TD. Genetic and congenital defect conditions that mimic child abuse. J Fam Pract 1995;41:377-83.
Kempe CH, Silverman FN, Steele BF, Droegemueller W, Silver HK. The battered-child syndrome. JAMA 1962;181:17-24.
Gondim RM, Munoz DR, Petri V. Child abuse: Skin markers and differential diagnosis. An Bras Dermatol 2011;86:527-36.
Chadwick DL. The diagnosis of inflicted injury in infants and young children. Del Med J 1997;69:345-54.
Pau-Charles I, Darwich-Soliva E, Grimalt R. Skin signs in child abuse. Actas Dermosifiliogr 2012;103:94-9.
Coulter K. Bruising and skin trauma. Pediatr Rev 2000;21:34-5.
Stephenson T. Ageing of bruising in children. J R Soc Med 1997;90:312-4.
Owen SM, Durst RD. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome simulating child abuse. Arch Dermatol 1984;120:97-101.
Roberts DL, Pope FM, Nicholls AC, Narcisi P. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV mimicking non-accidental injury in a child. Br J Dermatol 1984;111:341-5.
Green AH. Self-destructive behavior in physically abused schizophrenic children. Report of cases. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1968;19:171-9.
Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. American Academy of Pediatrics. When inflicted skin injuries constitute child abuse. Pediatrics 2002;110:644-5.
Bolognia JL, Schaffer JV. Dermatology. In: Willemze R, editor. Heritable Disorder of Conective Tissue. 3 rd
ed. Madrid: Mosby Elsevier; 2012. Vol. 2. p. 1607-12.
Callewaert B, Malfait F, Loeys B, De Paepe A. Ehlers-Danlos syndromes and Marfan syndrome. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2008;22:165-89.
Karaa A, Stoler JM. Ehlers Danlos syndrome: An unusual presentation you need to know about. Case Rep Pediatr 2013;2013:764659.
Pagon R, Adam M, Bird T, Dolan C, Fong C, Stephens K. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV--GeneReviews™; 2011.
Swerdlin A, Berkowitz C, Craft N. Cutaneous signs of child abuse. J Am Acad Dermatol 2007;57:371-92.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
|This article has been cited by|
||Fracture incidence in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome – A population-based case-control study
| ||Mary C. Rolfes,David R. Deyle,Katherine S. King,Jennifer L. Hand,Arne H. Graff,Chris Derauf |
| ||Child Abuse & Neglect. 2019; 91: 95 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos clásico: hallazgos clínicos y ecográficos
| ||M. Herrero-Moyano,L. Noguera-Morel,A. Torrelo,A. Hernández-Martín |
| ||Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas. 2018; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Medical Mimics of Child Abuse
| ||Cindy W. Christian,Lisa J. States |
| ||American Journal of Roentgenology. 2017; : 1 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Multiple fractures in infants who have Ehlers-Danlos/hypermobility syndrome and or vitamin D deficiency: A case series of 72 infants whose parents were accused of child abuse and neglect
| ||M. F. Holick,A. Hossein-Nezhad,F. Tabatabaei |
| ||Dermato-Endocrinology. 2017; 9(1): e1279768 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Common skin and bleeding disorders that can potentially masquerade as child abuse
| ||Bhavita Patel,Rebecca Butterfield |
| ||American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics. 2015; 169(4): 328 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(s) mimicking child abuse: Is there an impact on clinical practice?
| ||Marco Castori |
| ||American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics. 2015; 169(4): 289 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|