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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 143-150

Association of low levels of vitamin D with chronic stable angina: A prospective case-control study


1 Department of Internal Medicine, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Cardiology, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
3 Department of Immunology, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
4 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Correspondence Address:
Ab Hameed Raina
House No. 618, Sector 45, Gurgaon - 122 002, Haryana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1947-2714.179130

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Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death and disability in developed countries. Chronic stable angina is the initial manifestation of CAD in approximately 50% of the patients. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D is crucial for cardiovascular health. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in our region is 83%. A low level of vitamin D is associated with chronic stable angina. Aim: This study was aimed at supporting or refuting this hypothesis in our population. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective case-control study. We studied 100 cases of chronic stable angina and compared them with 100 matched controls. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as <20 ng/mL, vitamin D insufficiency as 20-30 ng/mL and normal vitamin D level as 31-150 ng/mL. Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among cases and controls was 75% and 10%, respectively. 75% of the cases were vitamin D-deficient (<20 ng/mL); 12% were vitamin D-insufficient (20-30 ng/mL), and 13% had normal vitamin D levels (31-150 ng/mL). None had a toxic level of vitamin D. Among the controls, 10% were vitamin D-deficient, 33% were vitamin D-insufficient, and 57% had normal vitamin D levels. The mean vitamin level among cases and controls was 15.53 ng/mL and 40.95 ng/mL, respectively, with the difference being statistically significant (P ≤ 0.0001). There was no statistically significant relation between the disease severities, i.e., on coronary angiography (CAG) with vitamin D level. Among the cases, we found that an increasing age was inversely related to vitamin D levels (P = 0.027). Conclusion: Our study indicates a correlation between vitamin D deficiency and chronic stable angina. Low levels may be an independent, potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor.


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