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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2011| November  | Volume 3 | Issue 11  
    Online since November 18, 2011

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Modulation of immune tolerance with a Chinese traditional prescription inhibits allergic rhinitis in mice
Min-Qiang Xie, Jie Liu, Zhen Long, Dao-Fa Tian, Chang-Qing Zhao, Ping-Chang Yang
November 2011, 3(11):503-507
Background : Allergic diseases substantially affect human health and social economy. The pathogenesis is to be further understood. The effect of current therapeutic remedies on allergic diseases is not satisfactory. Aims : This study aimed to inhibit allergic rhinitis in a mouse model with a Chinese traditional medical prescription, Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang. Material and Methods : A mouse AR model was developed with ovalbumin (OVA) plus adjuvant alum. The AR clinical symptoms and immune pathology in the nasal mucosa were assessed with the AR mouse model. Some mice were treated with Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang via gavage-fed. The immune tolerance status in the nasal mucosa was evaluated by counting the numbers of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC) and regulatory T cells (Treg). Results : After exposure to the specific antigen, OVA, the sensitized mice had AR-like symptoms including nasal itch and sneeze. The frequency of mast cells, levels of IgE/IL-4 in nasal mucosa was markedly higher in sensitized mice than naïve controls; while the levels of integration alphavbeta6 (avb6), the number of tolerogenic DCs and Tregs in nasal mucosa were significantly lower than naïve control mice. The AR-like symptoms and immune pathology and immune tolerance status in the AR nasal mucosa were substantially improved by administration with Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang. Conclusions : The immune tolerance status is impaired in the AR nasal mucosa that can be improved by administering with Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang.
  2 2,110 339
CASE REPORTS
Autoimmune pancreatitis mimicking pancreatic cancer
Mohamed Hammami, Faouzi Noomen, Omar Toumi, Olfa Harzallah, Ammar Mahmoudi, Wassim Kallel, Khadija Zouari, Abdelaziz Hamdi
November 2011, 3(11):520-523
Context: Autoimmune pancreatitis is a particular type of pancreatitis of presumed autoimmune etiology, it is an entity distinct from all others forms of chronic pancreatitis, characterized by clinical, histopathological, radiographic, serologic and therapeutic features. This benign disease resembles pancreatic carcinoma both clinically and radiographically. Case Report: A 27-year-old man presented with obstructive jaundice and evocative image of pancreatic tumor. A pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple operation) was performed and pathological examination of the specimen diagnosed AIP. Patient responded well to a course of corticosteroids with resolution of clinical and biological disorders. Conclusion: Accurate and timely diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis is particularly important because steroid therapy is effective and pancreatic resection is not necessary.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of topical application of entada phaseoloides seeds as paste and ointment
Jayshree S Dawane, Vijaya A Pandit, Bhagyashree D Rajopadhye
November 2011, 3(11):513-517
Aims: The study was to study the anti-inflammatory effect of topical application of different formulations of seed pulp of entada phaseoloides. Method and Material : After removing the shell, entada phaseoloides seeds were powdered. Paste was prepared with water and ointment with polyethylene glycol & Carbowax 3350. 32 Wister rats of either sex weighing 140-200 gram were divided into four groups, Group-I vehicle, Group-II entada phaseoloides paste, Group-III entada phaseoloides Ointment, Group-IV Diclofenac sodium Ointment. Arthritis was induced by injecting 0.1ml Complete Freund's adjuvant in sub plantar region of the left hind paw. Drug treatment was started on the same day and given for 12 days. Paw volume was measured with Plethysmometer on day 0, 1, 5, 12 and 21 for both the paws. Bodyweight and Gait was observed throughout the study. Results: Localized inflammatory reaction developed in all the rats in 24 hours. In control group, there was no resolution of swelling even in 21 days. Both EP formulations showed significant (P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity as compared to control. entada phaseoloides ointment was equi-effective to that of Diclofenac sodium on 12 th day. entada phaseoloides paste was significantly (P < 0.05) more effective than Diclofenac sodium on 21 st day. Conclusion: Both the formulations of entada phaseoloides have anti-inflammatory activity and entada phaseoloides paste is significantly more effective than diclofenac sodium.
  1 2,979 354
CASE REPORTS
An unusual case of altered mental status in a young woman
Rama Mohana Rao Challapalli Sri, Thejo Chipinapi, Shishira Bharadwaj, Kerri Ann Kissell
November 2011, 3(11):518-519
Context : We describe a case of paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome, namely N-Methyl-D-Aspartic acid receptor antibody associated limbic encephalitis, a rare cause of altered mental status in the young. Case Report : A 28 year old Caucasian female nurse presented with acute onset difficulty with word finding and increasing confusion and agitation. She also had visual hallucinations, transient episodes of unresponsiveness, and lingual dyskinesias. Workup including blood, imaging and regular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies was unremarkable. She subsequently developed complex partial seizures. Computerized Tomography scan of chest/abdomen/pelvis revealed a dermoid cyst of the left ovary and CSF N-Methyl-D-Aspartic acid receptor antibody returned positive confirming the diagnosis of paraneoplastic NMDA receptor antibody associated limbic encephalitis. She was treated with methylprednisolone therapy along with plasmapheresis and a left salpingo-opherectomy was performed. The patient showed significant improvement with respect to her cognitive function and had no more seizures. Conclusion : N-Methyl-D-Aspartic acid receptor antibody associated limbic encephalitis is a rare paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome with symptoms including psychiatric manifestations, seizures, language disturbances and autonomic instability. It develops due to antibody induced decrease in N-Methyl-D-Aspartic acid receptors. There is a significant association with ovarian teratoma in >50% female cases. Treatment includes resection of tumor, glucocorticoids, plasmapheresis and Intravenous Immunoglobulin therapy.
  - 2,769 429
Enoxaparin-associated giant retroperitoneal hematoma in pulmonary embolism treatment
Fahri Halit Besir, Mesut Gul, Tacettin Ornek, Tulay Ozer, Bulent Ucan, Levent Kart
November 2011, 3(11):524-526
Context: Retroperitoneal hematoma may usually occur as a result of trauma. A life threatening retroperitoneal hematoma is not expected complication of anticoagulation treatment and rarely reported. Low molecular weight heparins (Enoxaparin) which are used as effective and safe medicine in the venous thromboemboly treatment have some major complications such as hematomas of different organs. We aim to present a giant spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma after anticoagulant treatment of pulmonary embolism with enoxaparin. Case Report: A 73-year-old male patient with the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism underwent anticoagulant treatment (enoxaparin). In the second day of admission, the patient had an episode of abdominal and back pain. Abdominal ultrasonography and computerized tomographic scan revealed a giant retroperitoneal hematoma. Enoxaparin treatment was then stopped and the supportive treatment was started. In the following days, hemoglobin levels returned to normal and a control CT revealed regression of hematoma size. Conclusion: The anticoagulant treatment with enoxaparin may lead to severe hematomas. Therefore, the clinical suspicion is required especially in elderly patients and patients with impaired renal function for retroperitoneal hematoma, when they suffer from acute abdominal pain.
  - 2,187 297
Secondary gliosarcoma after the treatment of primary glioblastoma multiforme
Khalid Andaloussi-Saghir, Mohamed Oukabli, Mohammed El Marjany, Hassan Sifat, Khalid Hadadi, Hamid Mansouri
November 2011, 3(11):527-530
Context : Gliosarcoma is a rare variant of glioblastoma multiforme containing distinct gliomatous and sarcomatous components. Gliosarcoma comprise 1.8-8% of glioblastoma multiforme and are clinically similar to them, affecting adults in the fourth and sixth decades of life, with a higher proportion found in males. The survival for patients with Gliosarcoma is equally poor as for those with glioblastoma multiforme, and there is a greater propensity for extracranial metastasis in Gliosarcoma. Clinical treatment-related experience reported in the literature is limited, and Gliosarcoma are currently treated in a similar fashion to glioblastoma multiforme, with modalities including tumor resection, postoperative radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Gliosarcoma can arise secondarily, after conventional adjuvant treatment of high-grade glioma. The current literature on the occurrence of secondary gliosarcoma after glioblastoma multiforme is limited, with only 54 reported cases. Case Report: The authors present a 48-year-old Caucasian male who had previously received postoperative combined radiation and temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme. After a free disease period of 9 months the disease recurs as Gliosarcoma. The patient underwent a Total surgical excision and received chemotherapy with a basis of bevacizumab and irinotecan. The patient died from tumor progression 5 months after gliosarcoma diagnosis. Conclusion : The poor survival of patients with secondary gliosarcoma who had previously received combined radiation and temozolomide chemotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme may reflect a unique molecular profile of glioblastoma multiforme that eventually recurs as secondary gliosarcoma. We have to keep in mind the possibility of gliosarcomatous change in the recurrence of malignant glioma. Awareness of this pathological entity will allow more rapid diagnosis and treatment.
  - 3,345 420
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Percutaneous dilatational versus conventional surgical tracheostomy in intensive care patients
Tarek F Youssef, Mohamed Rifaat Ahmed, Aly Saber
November 2011, 3(11):508-512
Background: Tracheostomy is usually performed in patients with difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation or some catastrophic neurologic insult. Conventional tracheostomy involves dissection of the pretracheal tissues and insertion of the tracheostomy tube into the trachea under direct vision . Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy is increasingly popular and has gained widespread acceptance in many intensive care unit and trauma centers. Aim: Aim of the study was to compare percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy versus conventional tracheostomy in intensive care patients. Patients and Methods: 64 critically ill patients admitted to intensive care unit subjected to tracheostomy and randomly divided into two groups; percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy and conventional tracheostomy. Results: Mean duration of the procedure was similar between the two procedures while the mean size of tracheostomy tube was smaller in percutaneous technique. In addition, the Lowest SpO 2 during procedure, PaCO 2 after operation and intra-operative bleeding for both groups were nearly similar without any statistically difference. Postoperative infection after 7 days seen to be statistically lowered and the length of scar tend to be smaller among PDT patients. Conclusion: PDT technique is effective and safe as CST with low incidence of post operative complication.
  - 2,285 601
Management of common adverse effects in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy in south east Ethiopia
Sadikalmahdi Hussen Abdella, Nasir Tajure Wabe, Elias Ali Yesuf
November 2011, 3(11):499-502
Background: The combination of antiretroviral therapy is the corner stone of management of patients with human immune deficiency virus infection. Although antiretroviral therapy can reduce viral load to undetectable level, improve the immunity and prolong survival of patients, antiretroviral drugs are associated with many adverse effects that may be severe and affect patient adherence and quality of life. Aims : The aim of this study was to assess management strategies under taken in patient's experienced common adverse effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Goba Hospital antiretroviral clinic. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study of patient record chart of patients who had follow-up during data collection period was done followed by patient interview. Data was filled on well structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS for window version 16.0. Results: The common adverse effects were Rash (48.8%), Peripheral neuropathy (36.9%) and Anemia (20.24%). The rate of management was 39.3%. Pyridoxine (36.8%) was commonly prescribed drug for management of Peripheral neuropathy. Chlorphenarimine gel and Iron gluconate were common drugs for management of Rash and Anemia respectively. Use of traditional healers (57.7%) was leading reason for non-management. Conclusion: Rate of management for common adverse effect is low. Education should be given on adverse effects for patients.
  - 1,674 316
REVIEW ARTICLES
Tumors of the body and tail of the pancreas
Ĺke Andrén-Sandberg
November 2011, 3(11):489-494
The Annual American Pancreas Club is an important event for communicating around clinical pancreatic disorders, just as the European, Japanese, Indian, and the International Pancreatic association. Even though the meeting is only 1½ day there were 169 different abstracts and a "How do I do it session." Among all these abstracts on the pancreas there are some real pearls, but they are almost always well hidden, never highlighted - all abstracts are similarly presented - and will too soon be forgotten. The present filing of the abstracts is one way (not the way) to get the pancreatic abstracts a little more read and a little more remembered - and perhaps a little more cited. It should also be understood that most of the abstracts are short summaries of hundreds of working hours (evenings, nights, weekends, holidays, you name them …) in the laboratory or in the clinic, often combined with blood, sweat and tears. The authors should be shown at least some respect, and their abstracts should not only be thought of as "just another little abstract" - and the best respect they can be shown are that they will be remembered to be another brick in our scientific wall. Now the pancreatic abstracts of American Pancreas Club 2011 are gathered and filed with the aim to give them a larger audience than they have had in their original abstract book. However, it is obvious that most of clinical fellows do not have time to read all the abstracts. For them I have made a "clinical highlight section" of 10 percent of all the pancreatic abstracts. If someone else should have done some collection of abstract, there should probably have been other selections, but as this is not the case, the editor's choices are the highlighted ones. The article as series I of clinical highlight section is present, and more series will be present in the following issues. If readers will remember some of the abstracts better after reading this "abstract of abstracts", it was worth the efforts - and without efforts there will be little progress.
  - 673 169
Triterpenoids from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum
Bingji Ma, Wei Ren, Yan Zhou, Jinchuan Ma, Yuan Ruan, Chun-Nan Wen
November 2011, 3(11):495-498
Recently a series of triterpenoids were isolated from ganoderma spores and have drawn the attention of chemists and pharmacists. The aim of this review is to summarize the triterpenoids and their bioactivities of ganoderma spores. The chemical and biological literatures of ganoderma spores dealing with the structural analysis and bioactivity assay were selected. Triterpenoids isolated from ganoderma spores showed significantly anti-HIV-1 protease, anti-tumor, and anti-complement activities. Triterpenoids are the main active constituents of ganoderma spores and show various bioactivities for its medicinal use. In addition, biological activities of ganoderma spores still need further assessment before they can be accepted not only by the traditional Asian medicine community, but also by western science and medicine.
  - 2,518 574
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