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  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2011| June  | Volume 3 | Issue 6  
    Online since November 9, 2011

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
The potentiality of medicinal plants as the source of new contraceptive principles in males
Ifeanyi Princewill Ogbuewu, Ihemdirim Chukwuma Unamba-Oparah, Victor Udodirim Odoemenam, Idorenyin Friday Etuk, Ifeanyi Charles Okoli
June 2011, 3(6):255-263
Rising human population throughout the world especially in developing and underdeveloped countries has detrimental effects on life supporting system on earth. Traditionally, plants have been used to treat different kinds of ailments. The growing importance of phytochemicals in males has been reported. Contraceptive ability of plants has been reported in several animal models. The reversibility of the anti-fertility effects of plants and its active compounds are of potential clinical relevance in the development of male contraceptive. This review attempts to discuss the latest reports on the potentiality of medicinal plants as the source of new contraceptive principles in males.
  3,325 395 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Royal jelly modulates oxidative stress and tissue injury in gamma irradiated male Wister Albino rats
Khaled Shaaban Azab, Mohamed Bashandy, Mahmoud Salem, Osama Ahmed, Zaki Tawfik, Hamed Helal
June 2011, 3(6):268-276
Background : Royal jelly is a nutritive secretion produced by the worker bees, rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Aim : The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of royal jelly against radiation induced oxidative stress, hematological, biochemical and histological alterations in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods : Male Wister albino rats were exposed to a fractionated dose of gamma radiation (2 Gy every 3 days up to 8 Gy total doses). Royal jelly was administrated (g/Kg/day) by gavages 14 days before exposure to the 1 st radiation fraction and the treatment was continued for 15 days after the 1 st irradiation fraction till the end of the experiment. The rats were sacrificed 3 rd , equivalent to 3rd post 2nd irradiation fraction, and equivalent to 3rd day post last irradiation fraction. Results : In the present study, gamma- irradiation induced hematological, biochemical and histological effects in male Wister albino rats. In royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable decrease recorded in thiobarbituric reactive substances concentration when compared to γ-irradiated group. Also, the serum nitric oxide concentration was significantly improved. The administration of royal jelly to irradiated rats according to the current experimental design significantly ameliorates the changes induced in serum lipid profile. Moreover, in royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable amelioration recorded in all hematological parameters along the three experimental intervals. The microscopic examination of cardiac muscle of royal jelly treated irradiated rats demonstrated structural amelioration, improved nuclei and normal features of capillaries and veins in endomysium when compared to gamma-irradiated rats. Conclusion : It was suggested that the biochemical, hematological and histological amelioration observed in royal jelly (g/Kg/day) treated irradiated rats might be due to the antioxidant capacity of royal jelly active constituents.
  2,097 362 1
THEORY ARTICLE
The dream as space, time and emotion
Athanasios Totlis
June 2011, 3(6):302-315
Human beings, like all living organisms, use energy ceaselessly with whatever they do. Nothing at all happens without spending some energy, not even a glance or a dream. The Author proposes that dreams happen automatically in sleep to help us release unresolved frustration energy and emotional dilemmas left over from the day before. Energy administration is the common denominator behind the manifold workings of dreams, as it is behind all operations of our consciousness in daytime, and this is far more important than one might at first suspect. In summary, if in waking reality the day prior to a dream, a specific sensory composition (a perception or picture) frustrates our mind such that the mind is unable or unwilling to accept this sensory composition, it forms and traps within us an emotional energy charge that lingers inside till that same night when the dream uses it in order to energize from memory analogous sensory components that form a spatiotemporally similar overall representational composition of the daytime waking event. This ends up as the dream we may remember the next day. For example, if in a real event yesterday a red apple between two green apples were in front of us and for some reason we were unable or unwilling to see and accept this perception, in a dream the next time we sleep, we may see promptly a red peach between two green peaches, which will be energized temporarily from our memory to serve the need of our psyche to represent the unprocessed emotion(s) and balance the tensions inside us. The dream always produces more acceptable symbolic perceptions for us to see or sense, and in doing so uses and releases at the same time the unacknowledged emotional energy inside us pending since yesterday's event.
  2,073 329 1
TECHNICAL ARTICLE
Direct molecular detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from clinical samples - An adjunct to cultural method of laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis
Oyebode A. T Alli, Olusoga D Ogbolu, Olubunmi O Alaka
June 2011, 3(6):281-288
Background: Tuberculosis, a communicable disease with significant morbidity and mortality, is the leading cause of death in the world from bacterial infectious disease. Because of its public health importance, there is need for rapid and definitive method of detecting the causative organism. Several approaches have been attempted, but the molecular methods, especially Polymerase Chain Reaction assays are the most promising for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from clinical samples. Aim: This study was aimed at using Polymerase Chain Reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from clinical samples using universal sample processing methodology. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred clinical samples sent to Tuberculosis laboratories in Ibadan and Osogbo, Nigeria, were enrolled in this study. The samples were processed by universal sample processing methodology for PCR; smear microscopy was carried out on sputum samples by Ziehl Nelseen staining technique; and cultured on Middlebrook agar medium containing oleic acid albumin dextrose complex supplement after decontamination of samples. Results: Ninety six (48%) samples were detected positive for M. tuberculosis complex by polymerase chain reaction using the combination of boiling and vortexing and microscopy detected 72 (36%) samples positive for acid fast bacilli. Using culture method as gold standard, it was found that polymerase chain reaction assay was more sensitive (75.5%) and specific (94.8%) than microscopy (sensitivity of 48.5% and specificity of 85.7%) in detecting M. tuberculosis complex from clinical samples. There was significant difference in detecting M. tuberculosis from clinical samples when compared to microscopy (p<0.05). Conclusion: The study recommends that direct molecular detection of M. tuberculosis complex is sensitive and specific and polymerase chain reaction method should be used as an adjunct to other methods of laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis.
  1,739 356 1
CASE REPORTS
Survivin, p53, MAC, Complement/C3, fibrinogen and HLA-ABC within hair follicles in central and centrifugal cicatricial alopecia
Ana Maria Abreu-Velez, A. Deo Klein, Michael S Howard
June 2011, 3(6):292-295
Context: Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA; originally entitled follicular degeneration syndrome, or hot comb alopecia) was first described in African American women utilizing hot combs and/or strong chemical hair care products. Case Report: A 67 year old African American female was evaluated for the presence of alopecic areas occurring on the scalp vertex, and spreading centrifugally. The alopecic lesions appeared as diffuse patches, including atrophic small areas surrounding individual hair follicles. Patients and Methods : Skin biopsies for hematoxylin and eosin examination, as well as for direct immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analyses were performed. Results: hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated histopathologic findings of premature desquamation of the inner root sheath and eccentric thinning of the follicular epithelium, supporting the diagnosis of CCCA. Direct immunofluorescence revealed strong depositions of Complement/C3, fibrinogen and kappa light chains around the hair follicles. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased expressions of HLA-ABC (as in African American patients with insulin independent diabetes mellitus). We also detected positive p53, bcl-2 and MAC staining in the hair follicle areas. Conclusions : Follicular degeneration syndrome may have an important immunological component previously not described, and multicolor immunofluorescence may be useful in establishing an early diagnosis.
  1,586 366 -
Anterior interosseous nerve palsy following the use of elbow crutches
Feiran Wu, Adil Ismaeel, Rehan Siddiqi
June 2011, 3(6):296-298
Context : Lesions of the anterior interosseous nerve are rare and comprise less than 1% of all upper extremity nerve palsies. Traumatic causes include blunt trauma, forearm fractures, penetrating injury and local pressure from a plaster cast, but has never before been described in association with crutch use. This is the first reported case of the use of elbow crutches causing symptomatic anterior interosseous nerve compression. Case Report: This case describes a 30-year-old male who developed an inability to pinch with his left hand following the use of elbow crutches for a foot injury. On examination he was unable to flex the interphalangeal joint of his left thumb. A diagnosis of anterior interosseous palsy was made and the patient was treated conservatively and crutch use was ceased. At six weeks follow-up the patient made a complete recovery with full function of his left hand. Conclusion: This report highlights the importance of adequate education in the safe use of elbow crutches for all patients. The side effects of inappropriate use should be carefully examined for during follow-up care.
  1,673 223 1
Isolated type I pelvic cystic echinococcosis mimicking ovarian tumor
Mehmet Vural, Saban Yalcin, Sema Yildiz, Hakan Camuzcuoglu
June 2011, 3(6):289-291
Context : Cystic echinococcosis is an endemic infestation with unique clinical and laboratory manifestations. Isolated pelvic type 1 cystic echinococcosis is a rare form of the disease with diagnostic pitfalls mainly based on non-diagnostic imaging findings. Case Report : We present an isolated pelvic cystic echinococcosis resembling ovarian tumor which was diagnosed during operation. Conclusions : Characteristic findings of hydatid disease lacks in type 1 and cause diagnostic difficulties. This rare entity should be considered for differential diagnosis due to varied examination findings especially in type 1 cystic echinococcosis.
  1,572 212 2
Pleomorphic adenoma of the lower lip: A rare site of location
Ilker Sengul, Demet Sengul, Duygu Aribas
June 2011, 3(6):299-301
Context: Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common neoplasm of the minor salivary glands which are uncommon among the entire salivary gland tumors. The lower lip is a very rare site of occurrence for pleomorphic adenoma. We intended to present a case of pleomorphic adenoma of the lower lip. Case Report: A 49-year-old Turkish man presented with the painless mass on his lower lip. A total excision was choiced for the mass by both we and the patient because of some cosmetic reasons. The histopathological evaluation revealed the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma and neither complication nor recurrence was observed during a clinical follow-up for 40 months. Conclusions: A clinician should be vigilant for the possibility of existence of a pleomorphic adenoma located on the lower lip even it is rare. Once it is diagnosed concisely, a wide excision is suggested in general if there is no cosmetic care and no risk of damage to functional structures of head and neck.
  1,497 279 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats exposed to premium motor spirit fumes
Ogbevire L Aberare, Patrick Okuonghae, Nathaniel Mukoro, John O Dirisu, Favour Osazuwa, Elvis Odigie, Richard Omoregie
June 2011, 3(6):277-280
Background: Deliberate and regular exposure to premium motor spirit fumes is common and could be a risk factor for liver disease in those who are occupationally exposed. A possible association between premium motor spirit fumes and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a rodent model could provide new insights in the pathology of diseases where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of premium motor spirit fumes on lipids and lipoproteins in workers occupationally exposed to premium motor spirit fumes using rodent model. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five Wister albino rats (of both sexes) were used for this study between the 4 th of August and 7 th of September, 2010. The rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group 1 rats were not exposed to premium motor spirit fumes (control group), group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the estimation of plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol. Result: Results showed significant increase in means of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels (P<0.05). The mean triglyceride and total body weight were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the exposed group when compared with the unexposed. The plasma level of high density lipoprotein, the ratio of low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly in exposed subjects when compared with the control group. Conclusion: These results showed that frequent exposure to petrol fumes may be highly deleterious to the liver cells.
  1,507 248 -
Ambient maximum temperature as a function of Salmonella food poisoning cases in the Republic of Macedonia
Vladimir Kendrovski, Zarko Karadzovski, Margarita Spasenovska
June 2011, 3(6):264-267
Background: Higher temperatures have been associated with higher salmonellosis notifications worldwide. Aims : The objective of this paper is to assess the seasonal pattern of Salmonella cases among humans. Material and Methods: The relationship between ambient maximum temperature and reports of confirmed cases of Salmonella in the Republic of Macedonia and Skopje during the summer months (i.e. June, July, August and September) beginning in 1998 through 2008 was investigated. The monthly number of reported Salmonella cases and ambient maximum temperatures for Skopje were related to the national number of cases and temperatures recorded during the same timeframe using regression statistical analyses. The Poisson regression model was adapted for the analysis of the data. Results: While a decreasing tendency was registered at the national level, the analysis for Skopje showed an increasing tendency for registration of new salmonella cases. Reported incidents of salmonellosis, were positively associated (P<0.05) with temperature during the summer months. By increasing of the maximum monthly mean temperature of 1° C in Skopje, the salmonellosis incidence increased by 5.2% per month. Conclusions: The incidence of Salmonella cases in the Macedonian population varies seasonally: the highest values of the Seasonal Index for Salmonella cases were registered in the summer months, i.e. June, July, August and September.
  1,435 197 -
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