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   2012| November  | Volume 4 | Issue 11  
    Online since November 9, 2012

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of paraoxonase 1: Implication in arteriosclerosis diseases
Dmitry Litvinov, Halleh Mahini, Mahdi Garelnabi
November 2012, 4(11):523-532
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103310  PMID:23181222
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a hydrolytic enzyme with wide range of substrates, and capability to protect against lipid oxidation. Despite of the large number of compounds that can be hydrolyzed by paraoxonase, the biologically relevant substrates are still not clearly determined. There is a massive in vitro and in vivo data to demonstrate the beneficial effects of PON1 in several atherosclerosis-related processes. The enzyme is primarily expressed in liver; however, it is also localized in other tissues. PON1 attracted significant interest as a protein that is responsible for the most of antioxidant properties of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Several bioactive molecules such as dietary polyphenols, aspirin and its hydrolysis product salicylate, are known to stimulate PON1 transcription activation in mouse liver and HepG2 cell line. Studies on the activity, function, and genetic makeup have revealed a protective role of PON1. Some striking data were obtained in PON1 gene knockout and PON1 transgenic mouse models and in human studies. The goal of this review is to assess the current understanding of PON1 expression, enzymatic and antioxidant activity, and its atheroprotective effects. Results from in vivo and in vitro basic studies; and from human studies on the association of PON1 with coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke will be discussed.
  6,370 1,137 60
RESEARCH LETTERS
Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed dose combination of methylcobalamin and pregabalin in the management of painful neuropathy
Ram Prabhoo, Atul Panghate, Raj Pavitra Dewda, Balaji More, Tanay Prabhoo, Rajiv Rana
November 2012, 4(11):605-607
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103336  PMID:23181238
  3,794 736 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Newer antibacterials in therapy and clinical trial
Simi S Paknikar, Sarala Narayana
November 2012, 4(11):537-547
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103312  PMID:23181224
In order to deal with the rising problem of antibiotic resistance, newer antibacterials are being discovered and added to existing pool. Since the year 2000, however, only four new classes of antibacterials have been discovered. These include the oxazolidinones, glycolipopeptides, glycolipodepepsipeptide and pleuromutilins. Newer drugs were added to existing classes of antibiotics, such as streptogramins, quinolones, beta-lactam antibiotics, and macrolide-, tetracycline- and trimethoprim-related drugs. Most of the antibacterials are directed against resistant S. aureus infections, with very few against resistant gram-negative infections. The following article reviews the antibacterials approved by the FDA after the year 2000 as well as some of those in clinical trials. Data was obtained through a literature search via Pubmed and google as well as a detailed search of our library database.
  3,141 622 7
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Bacteriological and resistance profile in isolates from diabetic patients
Vinita Rawat, Monil Singhai, Ashok Kumar, Pawan Kumar Jha, Rajeev Goyal
November 2012, 4(11):563-568
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103315  PMID:23181227
Background: Diabetes mellitus has become a global epidemic illness and poses a threat for development of resistant bacterial infections. Aim: This study was aimed to know the bacteriological and resistance profile of isolates obtained from diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: The bacterial isolates obtained from various samples of diabetic patients admitted in medicine department in 6-month period were identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESβL), AmpC, and metallo-beta-lactamases (MβL) enzymes were detected in gram-negative bacilli. Methicillin, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS), and linezolid resistance in Staphylococcus spp. were detected. High-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) in Enterococcus spp. was also tested. Results: In all, 38 of 125 diabetic patients (30.4%) had bacterial infection, 18 patients had wound infections, 18 had urinary tract infections (UTIs), and 2 had respiratory tract infections. Escherichia coli among gram-negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus among gram-positive bacteria were the predominant pathogens. 32.5% gram-negative bacilli were AmpC producers, 37.5% were MβL producers, and 40% were ESβL producers. Methicillin and MLS resistance was found in 50% and 33.3% isolates of Staphylococcus spp., respectively. HLAR resistance was alarming in Enterococcus spp. Polymyxin among gram-negative bacteria and vancomycin for gram-positive bacteria were the last resort with highest susceptibility rates to treat infections among diabetic patients. Conclusion: Resistant bacterial infections in diabetic patients are common. The presence of various resistance mechanisms in isolates of our study shows that therapeutic failure can occur if empirical prescription is unsubstantiated.
  2,649 457 8
Hypertension in the elderly: Prevalence and health seeking behavior
Palanivel Chinnakali, Bharathy Mohan, Ravi Prakash Upadhyay, Arvind Kumar Singh, Rahul Srivastava, Kapil Yadav
November 2012, 4(11):558-562
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103314  PMID:23181226
Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are major contributors of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Estimating the prevalence of hypertension and studying the health seeking behavior is important. Aim: This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and understand the health seeking behavior among the elderly in rural Puducherry, south India. Materials and Methods: A total of 211 elderly from a rural community were selected by systematic random sampling. Blood pressure (BP) was measured. Socio-demographic characteristics and health seeking behavior were assessed by interviews. Results: Prevalence of hypertension among study participants was 40.5%. Prevalence of hypertension among elderly male subjects was 39.2% and in female subjects was 40.8%. About 62% (53 out of 85 hypertensives) were already aware of their hypertensive status. About 54.7% (29) were diagnosed at government health facilities either at primary health centers (PHCs) or a government hospital. Conclusion: Burden of hypertension among the elderly is high in rural areas. Strategies to detect and treat hypertension in the elderly have to be implemented early.
  2,540 563 11
Serum calcium level in hypertension
Mohammed Abdul Hannan Hazari, Mehnaaz Sameera Arifuddin, Syed Muzzakar, Vontela Devender Reddy
November 2012, 4(11):569-572
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103316  PMID:23181228
Background: The alterations in extracellular calcium level may influence intracellular calcium level and possibly play a role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Aim: The purpose was to find out the association between serum calcium levels and hypertension; and to compare the serum calcium levels between normotensive controls, hypertensive subjects on calcium channel blockers, and hypertensive subjects on antihypertensive medication other than calcium channel blockers. Materials and Methods: Thirty one individuals including normotensives (n = 12) and hypertensives (n = 19) were enrolled for the study and their blood pressure recorded. Hypertensive group was sub divided into two: hypertensives on calcium channel blockers and hypertensives on antihypertensive medication other than calcium channel blockers. Serum calcium levels were measured by Accucare Calcium Arsenazo III kit. Differences between the groups were analyzed using ANOVA. Results: No significant difference in serum calcium level was found between normotensive and hypertensive groups; and no correlation was found between calcium levels and the blood pressure. Also the difference in serum calcium levels in hypertensive group on calcium channel blockers and those on antihypertensive other than calcium channel blockers was insignificant. Conclusions: Serum calcium levels are tightly regulated. Subtle changes in serum levels do not affect blood pressure.
  2,671 394 7
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Topical ozone and chronic wounds: Improper use of therapeutic tools may delay wound healing
Mesut Mutluoglu, Ercan Karabacak, Hüseyin Karagöz, Günalp Uzun, Hakan Ay
November 2012, 4(11):615-616
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103342  PMID:23181242
  2,647 323 5
Incarcerated femoral hernia in men: Incidence, diagnosis, and surgical management
Iswanto Sucandy, Jeffrey W Kolff
November 2012, 4(11):617-618
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103343  PMID:23181243
  2,727 229 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Staphylococcus aureus in acne pathogenesis: A case-control study
Farzin Khorvash, Fatemeh Abdi, Hessam H Kashani, Farahnaz Fatemi Naeini, Tahmineh Narimani
November 2012, 4(11):573-576
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103317  PMID:23181229
Background : There is considerable evidence which suggests a possible pathogenetic role for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in acne vulgaris. Aim : The study was to determine S. aureus colonization and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in patients with acne and of healthy people. Materials and Methods : In the case-control study, a total of 324 people were screened for nasal carriage of S. aureus: 166 acne patients and 158 healthy persons. One control subject was individually matched to one case. Nasal swabs from anterior nares of individuals were cultured and identified as S. aureus. Antibiotic sensitivity was performed with recognized laboratory techniques. Results: S. aureus was detected in 21.7% of the subjects in acne, and in 26.6% of control groups. There was no statistical difference in colonization rates between two groups (P=0.3). In patient group, most of S. aureus isolates were resistant to doxicycline and tetracycline (P=0.001), and were more sensitive to rifampicin compared to other drugs. In control samples, the isolated demonstrated higher resistance to cotrimoxazole compared to patient samples (P=0.0001). There was no difference between groups regarding resistance to rifampicin, vancomycin, methicillin, and oxacillin. Conclusion: It is still unclear whether S. aureus is actually a causal agent in the pathogenesis of acne. Based on microbiological data of both healthy and acne-affected persons, we propose that contribution of S. aureus in acne pathogenesis is controversial.
  2,427 444 10
REVIEW ARTICLES
Human factor studies on a mars analogue during crew 100b international lunar exploration working group euromoonmars crew: Proposed new approaches for future human space and interplanetary missions
Balwant Rai, Jasdeep Kaur
November 2012, 4(11):548-557
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103313  PMID:23181225
Knowing the risks, costs, and complexities associated with human missions to Mars, analogue research can be a great (low-risk) tool for exploring the challenges associated with the preparation for living, operating, and undertaking research in interplanetary missions. Short-duration analogue studies, such as those being accomplished at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), offer the chance to study mission operations and human factors in a simulated environment, and therefore contribute to exploration of the Moon and Mars in planned future missions. This article is based upon previously published articles, abstracts, and presentations by a series of independent authors, human factor studies performed on mars analogue station by Crew 100B. The MDRS Crew 100B performed studies over 15 days providing a unique insight into human factor issues in simulated short-duration Mars mission. In this study, 15 human factors were evaluated and analyzed by subjective and objective means, and from the summary of results it was concluded that optimum health of an individual and the crew as a whole is a necessity in order to encourage and maintain high performance and the satisfaction of project goals.
  2,616 249 3
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Acute fatty liver of pregnancy
Madhusudan Dey, Kumar Reema
November 2012, 4(11):611-612
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103339  PMID:23181240
  2,152 435 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Mental and physical workload, salivary stress biomarkers and taste perception: Mars desert research station expedition
Balwant Rai, Jasdeep Kaur
November 2012, 4(11):577-581
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103318  PMID:23181230
Background: Very few studies have been conducted on the effects of simulation of Mars conditions on taste. Aims: This study was planned to find the effects of physical and mental workload on taste sensitivity and salivary stress biomarkers. Materials and Methods: Twelve crew members were selected. Taste reactions and intensity of the taste sensations to quinine sulfate, citric acid, and sucrose were tested before and after mental and physical tasks for one hour. Also, psychological mood states by profile of mood state, salivary, salivary alpha amylase and cortisol, and current stress test scores were measured before and after mental and physical tasks. Results: Average time intensity evaluation showed that after the mental and physical tasks, the perceived duration of bitter, sour, and sweet taste sensations was significantly shortened relative to control group. There were good correlations between average time intensity of sweetness, bitterness, sourness and cortisol levels. Conclusions: Taste alterations due to stress can have an effect on the health and confidence of astronauts in long- term space missions. Thus, this issue remains one of the important issues for future human explorations.
  2,254 308 3
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
Fazl Qadir Parray, Abdul Wahid Syed, Ghulam Nabi Yatoo, Showkat Ali Zargar, Rayees Ahmad Malik
November 2012, 4(11):613-614
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103340  PMID:23181241
  2,055 240 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
OX40L-OX40 interactions: A possible target for gastrointestinal autoimmune diseases
Tahrin Mahmood, Ping-Chang Yang
November 2012, 4(11):533-536
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103311  PMID:23181223
Gastrointestinal (GI) autoimmune diseases have a high incidence in developed countries, such as Canada and the US. Some common GI autoimmune diseases include ulcerative colitis and Crohn's Disease. These conditions are not only unpleasant for the patient, but also present a heavy burden on the healthcare system. OX40L, a member of the tumor necrosis family, has been identified as a key player in the pathological inflammatory response, which characterizes GI autoimmune diseases. OX40L is expressed in many cell types, including antigen presenting cells (APCs), T-cells, vascular endothelial cells, mast cells, and natural killer cells. The importance of OX40L-OX40 interactions in inflammatory autoimmune diseases is becoming more evident through different animal models, ranging from nematode models to mouse models. This literature review attempts to summarize the current literature regarding the role of OX40L-OX40 interactions in GI autoimmune inflammatory diseases and comment on its potential for treatment. Various databases, including OVID MedLine and PubMed were used to retrieve articles regarding the role of OX40L-OX40 interactions in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. These articles were then reviewed and summarized in a comprehensive manner. OX40L-OX40 interactions have a strong potential for becoming a treatment target; however, there are still many gaps in the present knowledge, which need to be addressed before more definitive treatments can emerge. It is also suggested that upstream events leading to OX40L activation, such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)-activated dendritic cells, be explored as treatment targets as well. OX40L-OX40 interaction is a possible venue for treatment of GI diseases; however, the underlying mechanisms of actions and the downstream effects of OX40L knock down need to be investigated.
  1,847 431 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Nano - drug delivery of apoptosis activator 2 to AGS cells by liposomes conjugated with anti-TROP2 antibody
Taghi Naserpour Farivar, Reza Najafipour, Pouran Johari
November 2012, 4(11):582-585
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103319  PMID:23181231
Background: Gastric cancer is the second most common causes of cancer related death in the world and is responsible for two third of cancer related death in the developing countries. survival rate surgery is low and radiation therapy and chemotherapy as alternatives ways for treatment of gastric cancer are not very promising. Thus there is an urgent need for introducing novel treatment procedures and promising new anti-canceric drugs. Aim: In this study we used pre-prepared liposomes and after necessary manipulations ,these modified liposomes were used for delivery of apoptosis activator 2 to gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS). Materials and Methods: we used pre-prepared liposomes and after necessary manipulations, these modified liposomes were used for delivery of apoptosis activator 2 to AGS cells and induced apoptosis was evaluated by related apoptotic DNA ladder, TUNNEL and Cell Death experiments. Results: Evaluation of apoptosis by Apoptotic DNA Ladder in liposome treated and untreated AGS cells by DNA laddering and fragmentation, TUNEL and Cell Death Detection confirmed that treatment of AGS cell lines with apoptosis activator 2 loaded liposomes which targeted cell surface TROP2 antigen in cancer cells significantly increased apoptosis in these cells. Conclusion: Nano drug delivery of apoptosis activator 2 to human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line with liposomes targeted TROP2 antigen is a possible way for smart killing of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells.
  1,736 351 7
RESEARCH LETTER
Stature estimating the location of maxillary sinus and mandibular canal
Kauser Ara Shahin, Laxmikanth Chatra, Prashanth Shenai
November 2012, 4(11):586-589
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103322  PMID:23181232
  1,437 244 5
RESEARCH LETTERS
Epidemiology of circumcision-related mortality in Iran: A 10-year survey
Arya Hedjazi, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Seyed Mohammad Vahid Hosseini, Mehran Fereidooni, Masoud Ghadipasha, Bahram Samadi Rad, Jaber Ghareh Daghi, Ahmad Shogaee, Amin Hoseinzadeh
November 2012, 4(11):608-610
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103338  PMID:23181239
  1,423 222 3
Population-based hepatitis C survey in a rural block
Sandeep Sachdeva, Bharti Mehta
November 2012, 4(11):591-592
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103325  PMID:23181234
  1,243 217 5
The clinical characteristics of pulmonary embolism in patients with malignancy: A single medical institutional experience
Asha Karippot, Hamid S Shaaban, Michael Maroules, Gunwant Guron
November 2012, 4(11):600-604
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103333  PMID:23181237
  1,267 171 1
Clinical profile of neurological manifestation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive patients
Satyendra K Sonkar, Abhinav Gupta, Virendra Atam, Shyam C Chaudhary, Anil K Tripathi, Gyanendra K Sonkar
November 2012, 4(11):596-599
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103329  PMID:23181236
  1,130 246 3
Subjective sleep problems in young women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Ravi Gupta, Vivekananda Lahan, Savita Bansal
November 2012, 4(11):593-595
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103326  PMID:23181235
  1,099 224 4
COMMENTARY
Maxillary sinus and mandibular canal location
Prasanna Kumar Rao
November 2012, 4(11):590-590
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.103324  PMID:23181233
  901 200 -
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