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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2012| August  | Volume 4 | Issue 8  
    Online since August 8, 2012

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Familial, Environmental, and Occupational Risk Factors in Development of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Kamalesh Das, Chiranjib Nag, Mrinalkanti Ghosh
August 2012, 4(8):350-355
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.99517  PMID:22912943
Background: Definite etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is still a matter of debate. Aims: The study was designed to evaluate the role of environmental, occupational, and familial risk factors in development of ALS. Materials and Methods: This was a case control study of 110 cases of definite ALS with 240 age and sex matched controls. Investigations were done on the following aspects- family history, occupation, living place, source of drinking water, exposure to industrial, chemical, agricultural toxins and heavy metals, physical and electrical injury, working under magnetic field for more than 10 years in both the groups. Clinical examinations, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging studies were done in every patient. Chi square test, logistic regression analysis, and calculation of odds ratio were used to analyze the data. Results: Rural livings (odds ratio = 1.99), smoking (odds ratio = 1.88), insecticides, and pesticides exposures (odds ratio = 1.61), electrical injury (odds ratio = 6.2) were detected as the associated factors in development amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Conclusions: The study expressed the need of extensive research globally in molecular and genetic levels to detect the associated factors in etiopathogenesis of ALS for better understanding the etiology and for remedial aspects.
  32 3,769 674
Resistance Training Leads to Clinically Meaningful Improvements in Control of Glycemia and Muscular Strength in Untrained Middle-aged Patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Unaise Abdul Hameed, Dilshad Manzar, Shahid Raza, Mohd Yakub Shareef, Mohd Ejaz Hussain
August 2012, 4(8):336-343
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.99507  PMID:22912941
Background: Previous studies in diverse ethnic groups have reported that progressive resistance training is effective for glycemic control. However, it is unknown whether this form of exercise therapy leads to clinically meaningful changes in metabolic, cardiovascular and anthropometric parameters in Asian Indians. Aim: The study was designed to investigate the efficacy of progressive resistance training on glycemic, musculoskeletal, anthropometric and cardiovascular variables in untrained middle-aged type 2 diabetic patients living in North India. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight untrained patients, 35 men and 13 women (mean ± SD age, 44.7 ± 4.2 years), with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes were randomly divided into 2 groups: A group receiving progressive resistance training and a control group who provided participative involvement. The primary outcomes were glycemic control and muscle strength. Additionally, anthropometric and cardiovascular risk parameters were evaluated at baseline and after intervention or control program at 8 weeks. Results: Mixed ANOVA revealed a significant group-by-time interaction for the main outcomes of the study. Change in glycosylated hemoglobin was mean ± SD, 0.6 ± 0.5 in progressive resistance training group compared to no change in control group (P < .001). Progressive resistance training group showed a greater improvement in upper and lower body muscle strength (P < .001), waist circumference (P = .008), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .004). However, no significant group-by-time interaction was detected on body weight, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: A short-term progressive resistance training program leads to clinically meaningful improvements in glycemic control and muscle strength in untrained middle-aged type 2 diabetic patients of Asian Indian ethnicity.
  13 3,799 602
CASE REPORTS
Widespread Intracranial Calcification, Seizures and Extrapyramidal Manifestations in a Case of Hypoparathyroidism
Imran Rizvi, Noor Alam Ansari, Mujahid Beg, Md Dilawez Shamim
August 2012, 4(8):369-372
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.99523  PMID:22912949
Hypoparathyroidism can present with neurological complaints like seizures, parasthesias, depression, psychosis, extrapyramidal manifestations and features of raised intracranial pressure. Hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are the most common causes of pathological basal ganglia calcification. A 50 year male presented with generalized seizures and extrapyramidal features like tremors and rigidity. Investigations revealed that he had hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and very low PTH levels, CT scan of head showed calcification of bilateral basal ganglia, cerebellum and subcortical white matter of frontal and parietal lobes. He showed remarkable recovery on restoration of normal serum calcium levels. Hypoparathyroidism should be kept in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with seizures and extrapyramidal features.
  7 10,031 671
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence and Association of Microalbuminuria in Essential Hypertensive Patients
Bibek Poudel, Binod Kumar Yadav, Ashwini Kumar Nepal, Bharat Jha, Kanak Bahadur Raut
August 2012, 4(8):331-335
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.99501  PMID:22912940
Background: Microalbuminuria in hypertension has been described as an early sign of kidney damage and a predictor for end stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Thus, it is of great importance to study urinary albumin creatinine ratio and progression of kidney disease in hypertensive patients. Aims: The present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence and association of microalbuminuria in newly diagnosed essential hypertension. Materials and Methods: Newly diagnosed essential hypertensive cases (n = 106) and normotensive controls (n = 106) were enrolled. Hypertension was defined according to Joint national committee-VII definitions. Microalbuminuria was measured using an U-Albumin (NycoCard, Norway) and adjusted for urine creatinine. Descriptive statistics and testing of hypothesis were used for the analysis using SPSS 16 software. Results: 51.88% of hypertension cases and 13.2% of normotensive controls had microalbuminuria in total population (odds ratio 7.086, P-value <0.001). 46.67% of cases and 12.08% of controls had microalbuminuria in male population (odds ratio 6.375, P-value <0.001). Similarly, 58.7% of cases and 14.58% of controls had microalbuminuria in female population (odds ratio 8.32, P-value <0.001). Conclusions: By showing strong association between microalbuminuria and hypertension, our findings suggest that microalbuminuria could be a useful marker to assess risk management of cardiovascular disease and renal disease.
  5 4,078 1,159
CASE REPORTS
Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: A Rare Case Report
Tayfun Temiz, Selcuk Yaylaci, Mustafa Volkan Demir, Zeynep Kahyaoglu, Ali Tamer, Mustafa Ihsan Uslan
August 2012, 4(8):367-368
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.99522  PMID:22912948
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration and peripheral eosinophilia. It can be seen anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. It is diagnosed in the biopsies taken during endoscopic examination to the patients with abdominal pain and chronic diarrhea. A 40-year-old woman was admitted with abdominal pain and chronic diarrhea. She has not any disease, food, pollen, or drug allergy in her medical history. Leukocyte: 19,400/mm3 (neutrophil: 19.9%, eosinophil: 57.4%, lymphocyte: 16.5%), platelet: 281,000/ mm 3 , immunoglobulin E: 1721 IU/mL (normal range: 20-100 IU/mL) was counted in her blood examination. The duodenal biopsy was reported as EGE. We applied methylprednisolone 20 mg/day. With this treatment, the patient's symptoms regressed. In this article we present a case of chronic diarrhea diagnosed EGE. The first step in diagnosing is suspecting EGE. It should be borne in mind in patients with chronic diarrhea.
  4 2,042 263
TECHNICAL ARTICLE
Uterine Closure in Cesarean Delivery: A New Technique
KM Babu, Navneet Magon
August 2012, 4(8):358-361
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.99519  PMID:22912945
Fear of scar rupture is one of risks involved in a post caesarean pregnancy. This had led to an increased rate of repeat cesarean delivery in today's times. Closure of the uterine incision is a key step in cesarean section, and it is imperative that an optimal surgical technique be employed for closing a uterine scar. This technique should be able to withstand the stress of subsequent labor. In the existing techniques of uterine closure, single or double layer, correct approximation of the cut margins, that is, decidua-to-decidua, myometrium to myometrium, serosa to serosa is not guaranteed. Also, there are high chances of inter surgeon variability. It was felt that if a suturing technique which ensures correct approximation of all the layers mentioned above with nil or minimal possibility of inter operator variability existed, there will not be any thinning of lower segment caesarean section (LSCS). Further, a scarred uterus repaired in this manner will be able to withstand the stress of labor in future. We hereby report a new technique for uterine closure devised by us, which incorporates a continuous modified mattress suture technique as a modification of the existing surgical technique of uterine closure.
  4 6,720 1,219
CASE REPORTS
Emphysematous Pyelonephritis Caused by Candida Parapsilosis: An Unknown Etiological Agent
Riyaz Ahmad Bhat, Gulnaz Bashir, Muzaffar Wani, Suhail Lone
August 2012, 4(8):364-366
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.99521  PMID:22912947
Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) a rare complication commonly seen in diabetic patients is a necrotising gas producing infection of the renal parenchyma and perinephric tissue predominantly caused by uropathogenic bacteria. Fungi have been rarely reported as the etiological agents, isolated from blood and/ or urine culture. We report a case of EPN caused by a rare etiological agent. A 60 year old diabetic female with no previous history of hospitalization presented to us with a short history of febrile illness associated with abdominal pain. Investigations revealed unilateral EPN "Wan type 1". Patient was treated with systemic antifungal therapy as per culture sensitivity and it alone proved to be an effective treatment of this clinically difficult condition. Patient was discharged in a satisfactory clinical condition. A rare etiology should always be kept in mind while evaluating a case of EPN.
  2 2,254 241
"Snake" Shaped Vegetation in Right Coronary Artery
Punnaiah C Marella, Shishir Murarka, Siva K Talluri, Faran Bashir
August 2012, 4(8):373-375
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.99524  PMID:22912950
Infective endocarditis is a rare cause of coronary embolism. This can result in myocardial infarction. Prompt identification is necessary as management is different from a regular myocardial infarction. Unlike in regular myocardial infarction, use of thrombolytics in this scenario could result in life-threatening complications and hence not indicated. In a patient who appears to be septic, embolic myocardial infarction should always be in the working differential diagnosis. An early transesophageal echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization could assist in diagnosis and management. We present an interesting case of a 45-year-old man who was admitted with vision loss, fevers and was found to have a non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. He had persistent bacteremia and developed systemic emboli. Investigation revealed mitral valve vegetation and a cardiac catheterization showed an interesting "snake"-shaped embolic vegetation in right coronary artery. He was treated with surgery to the mitral valve and antibiotics. In a septic patient with myocardial infarction, possibility of coronary embolism from vegetation should be kept in mind.
  2 1,506 207
Hepatosplenic Trunk Associated with Tortuous Course of Right Hepatic Artery Forming Caterpillar Hump
Satheesha Nayak Badagabettu, Srinivasa Rao Sirasanagandla, Naveen Kumar, Surekha Devadasa Shetty
August 2012, 4(8):376-378
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.99525  PMID:22912951
Celiac trunk usually trifurcates and supplies the organs in the supracolic compartment. The vascular variations are common in this region. There are reports on the variant course of right hepatic artery (RHA). The tortuous RHA forming a caterpillar hump is a rare finding and also its providing origin to gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is an important observation. During routine dissection of abdomen of approximately 60-year-old male cadaver, concurrent arterial variations were observed. The celiac trunk bifurcated into splenic and common hepatic arteries. The left gastric artery arose from the abdominal aorta. The common hepatic artery was tortuous and divided into right and left hepatic arteries in front of portal vein. The RHA gave origin to GDA and then made a characteristic loop around the bile duct with the convexity to the right side. Knowledge of arterial variations of celiac trunk and its branches is useful in planning and executing the radiological interventions and surgeries in the supracolic abdominal compartment.
  2 2,459 221
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The Magnitude of Under-five Emergencies in a Resource-poor Environment of a Rural Hospital in Eastern Nigeria: Implication for Strengthening the House-hold and Community-integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses
Gabriel UP Iloh, John N Ofoedu, Patrick U Njoku, Agwu N Amadi, Ezinne U Godswill-Uko
August 2012, 4(8):344-349
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.99514  PMID:22912942
Background: Under-five in Nigeria are the most vulnerable group that are often challenged by emergency health conditions. Aim: The study was to describe the magnitude of under-five emergencies in a resource-poor environment of a rural hospital in eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study of 282 under-five patients with emergency health conditions at a rural Hospital in Imo state, eastern Nigeria. Data extracted included bio-data and diagnosis. Results: A total of 282 under-five emergencies were studied. The ages of the patients ranged from 12 days to 58 months with mean age of 34 ± 9.4 months. There were 153 (54.3%) males and 129 (45.7%) females with male to female ratio of 1.2: 1. The three most common causes of under-five emergencies were acute uncomplicated malaria (29.1%), severe malaria anemia (24.5%), and acute respiratory infections (22.7%). The predominant outcome of emergency admission was discharged home (83.0%). The preeminent cause of death was severe malaria anemia (81.8%). All deaths occurred within 24 hours of hospitalization. Conclusion: The three most common under-five emergencies were infectious medical emergencies and the preeminent cause of death was malaria-related. Strengthening the quality of the Roll Back Malaria Initiative, household and community-integrated management of childhood illnesses will help to reduce these preventable medical emergencies and deaths.
  1 2,187 253
COMMENTARY
The Environment and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Converging Clues from Epidemiologic Studies Worldwide
Marco Vinceti
August 2012, 4(8):356-357
PMID:22912944
  - 1,198 230
The Optimal Uterine Closure Technique During Cesarean
Emmanuel Bujold
August 2012, 4(8):362-363
PMID:22912946
  - 1,441 231
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