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   2014| November  | Volume 6 | Issue 11  
    Online since November 26, 2014

 
 
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EXPERT COMMENTARY
Ebola virus infection: What should be known?
Viroj Wiwanitkit
November 2014, 6(11):549-552
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.145458  PMID:25535601
Ebola virus infection is the present global consideration. This deadly virus can result in a deadly acute febrile hemorrhagic illness. The patient can have several clinical manifestations. As a new emerging infection, the knowledge on this infection is extremely limited. The interesting issues to be discussed include a) the atypical clinical presentation, b) new diagnostic tool, c) new treatment, and d) disease prevention. Those topics will be discussed in this special review.
  2,256 578 13
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under epidural anesthesia: A feasibility study
Ranendra Hajong, Peter Daniel S Khariong, Arup J Baruah, Madhur Anand, Donkupar Khongwar
November 2014, 6(11):566-569
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.145468  PMID:25535604
Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is normally performed under general anesthesia. But of late this operation has been tried under regional anesthesia successfully without any added complications like epidural anesthesia. Aims: The aim of the study was to study the feasibility of performing LC under epidural anesthesia in normal patients so that the benefits could be extended to those high-risk patients having symptomatic gallstone disease and compromised cardio-pulmonary status where general anesthesia is contraindicated. Materials and Methods: In all, 20 patients with the American Society of Anesthesiologist's class I or II were enrolled in the study. The level of epidural block and satisfaction score, both for the patient and the surgeon, were noted in the study. Results: The LC was performed successfully under epidural anesthesia in all but two patients who had severe shoulder pain in spite of giving adequate analgesia and were converted to general anesthesia. Conclusions: The LC can be performed safely under epidural anesthesia with understanding between patient and surgeon. However, careful assessment of complications in the patients should be done to make the procedure safer.
  1,596 596 2
CASE REPORTS
Unexplained facial scar: Child abuse or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome?
Bahareh Abtahi-Naeini, Javad Shapouri, Mohsen Masjedi, Ali Saffaei, Mohsen Pourazizi
November 2014, 6(11):595-598
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.145482  PMID:25535610
Context: Child abuse is a serious problem, and its physical manifestations can be mimicked by certain diseases and conditions. These conditions can include genetic, congenital and other disorders that may result in poor weight gain, bone fractures or skin lesions that look like bruises or burns. Case Report: This paper reports the case of a seven-year-old girl with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), which was misdiagnosed as child abuse. This child was referred to us for treatment of an unexplained facial scar that was alleged to be the result of child abuse. Conclusion: When unusual skin presentations are observed, dermatologists should consider the possibility of child abuse to protect the child. Furthermore, they should be aware of the cutaneous abnormalities that mimic injuries associated with abuse to avoid the unnecessary reporting of child abuse.
  1,817 339 6
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Awareness of forensic odontology among legal professionals, Chennai, India
Packiaraj Selvajothi, Chandra Lavanya, Elizabeth Joshua, Umadevi K Rao, Kannan Ranganathan
November 2014, 6(11):553-557
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.145459  PMID:25535602
Background: The forensic discipline of law is a multidisciplinary team comprising of specialists in forensic medicine, forensic odontology, security and law. Aim: The study was to find the awareness level of scope and utility of forensic odontology among lawyers in Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using a self administered structured questionnaire was conducted in 200 lawyers between August and September of 2013. The data was analyzed depending on age, gender, type and years of practice. Results: Lawyers above 40 years of experience were more aware of palatal rugae analysis (P = 0.02), and those with more than 20 years were aware of lip print (P = 0.001) and bite mark analysis (P = 0.001). Males were more aware of forensic odontology with respect to criminal identification (P = 0.001). The knowledge of bite mark analysis was higher among male lawyers (P = 0.001), civil and criminal practicing lawyers (P = 0.004). All participants were aware that loss or fracture of tooth constitutes a grievous injury under Indian Penal Code (IPC) 320 clause 7(5). Conclusion: This study highlighted the knowledge of forensic odontology among legal professionals and also identified the areas in which they need further appraisal.
  1,774 369 2
The risk of coronary heart disease in patients with kidney stones: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Charat Thongprayoon, Michael A Mao, Oisin A O'Corragain, Peter J Edmonds, Stephen B Erickson
November 2014, 6(11):580-585
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.145477  PMID:25535607
Background: The reported risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with a history of kidney stones is conflicting. Aims: The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between a history of kidney stones and CHD risk. Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception until April 04, 2014. Studies that reported odds ratios or hazard ratios comparing the risk of CHD in patients with a history of kidney stones versus those without a history of kidney stones were included. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. Results: Seven study populations from four cohort studies and one cross-sectional study were identified and included in the data analysis. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of CHD in patients with kidney stones was 1.24 (95% CI, 1.10-1.40). This result remained significant (RR, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.08-1.41]) when the sensitivity analysis was restricted to only cohort studies. A history of kidney stones was associated with increased CHD risk in females (RR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.12-1.82]), whereas the association was not significant in males (RR, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.94-1.38]). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a statistically significant increased risk of CHD in female patients with prior kidney stones. This finding suggests that a history of kidney stones is a risk factor for CHD in females and may impact clinical management.
  1,627 334 12
Genetic variants of interleukin-10 gene promoter are associated with schizophrenia in Saudi patients: A case-control study
Saeed Mohammad Al-Asmary, Saeed Kadasah, Misbahul Arfin, Mohammad Tariq, Abdulrahman Al-Asmari
November 2014, 6(11):558-565
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.145466  PMID:25535603
Background: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene is considered as a potential candidate gene in schizophrenia association studies. The polymorphisms on IL-10 gene have been reported to be linked with susceptibility to the development of schizophrenia within consistent results. Aims: The aim of this case-control study was to examine whether the -1082A/G, -819T/C, and -592A/C polymorphisms in IL-10 gene are implicated in schizophrenia development in the Saudi population. Materials and Methods: Molecular genotyping of IL-10 gene polymorphisms was performed to analyze the genotypes and alleles distribution of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients (n = 181) and healthy individuals as control group (n = 211). Results: The frequencies of GA genotype at -1082, and CC genotype at positions -592 and -819 were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy subjects suggesting that GA, CC, and CC genotypes are susceptible to schizophrenia. The ACC haplotype known to be associated with intermediate production of IL-10 are more prevalent in our schizophrenia patients. On the other hand, genotypes -1082 GG, -819 CT, and -592 CA of IL-10 were more prevalent in healthy controls suggesting protective effects of GA, CT, and CA genotypes against schizophrenia. There was no significant association of IL-10 polymorphisms with sex or positive or negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Conclusion: This study indicates that the IL-10 gene polymorphisms play a significant role in the etiology of schizophrenia in Saudi Arabians patients.
  1,549 285 4
CASE REPORTS
Inferior vena cava anomaly: A risk for deep vein thrombosis
Puja S Sitwala, Vatsal M Ladia, Parag B Brahmbhatt, Vinay Jain, Kailash Bajaj
November 2014, 6(11):601-603
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.145486  PMID:25535612
Context: Inferior vena cava (IVC) anomalies have a 0.5% incidence rate and could be associated with other congenital abnormalities. In later stage of the disease, trophic ulcers with or without deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is consistent finding. Case Report: A 29-year-old male patient presented with recurrent lower extremity ulcers. Further workup revealed an absent infrahepatic inferior vena cava, prominently dilated azygos and hemiazygos veins with enlarged retroperitoneal collaterals without DVT. Conclusion: IVC anomaly should be suspected in a young patient presenting with unexplained venous thrombosis and recurrent ulcers of a lower extremity. IVC anomaly would inherently lead to blood flow stasis and endothelial injury. Thus per Virchow's triad, other risk factors for hypercoagulability such as physical inactivity, smoking tobacco, oral contraceptive pills should be avoided and when hereditary thrombophilias or other irreversible risk factors are present, lifelong anticoagulation should be considered.
  1,348 278 9
Rapid response of long-standing, treatment-resistant non-catatonic mutism in paranoid schizophrenia with single ECT session
Mansoor Ahmad Dar, Yasir Hassan Rather, Majid Shafi Shah, Rayees Ahmad Wani, Arshad Hussain
November 2014, 6(11):591-594
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.145480  PMID:25535609
Context: Mutism is a common manifestation of catatonia, but mutism due to other forms of psychopathology and neurological disorders have also been described. Although not common, long-standing mutism has also been a feature of non-catatonic schizophrenia and traditionally responds less to conventional therapies. Case Report: We describe a rare case of paranoid schizophrenia presenting with continuous mutism for about 4 years. This 26-year-old male had symptoms of schizophrenia without catatonia. After failed trial of adequate pharmacotherapy and psychological intervention and considering his level of dysfunction, he was started on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). To our surprise, he improved with a single session of ECT while he was on concurrent pharmacotherapy. We also discuss the possible explanation for this rapid effect of ECT in such clinical presentation. To our knowledge, this is the first case of non-catatonic mutism of schizophrenia of this long duration responding so promptly to ECT, although there are other reports as well in literature, but multiple ECT sessions were applied in those cases. Conclusion: Non-catatonic mutism is perhaps presenting as a cultural variant in this part of the world and whenever encountered, ECT should be an option. Further research should be carried out to validate this idea.
  1,350 244 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Psychosocial characteristics of oromucosal diseases in psychiatric patients: Observational study from Indian dental college
KV Suresh, Channamallappa C Ganiger, Yusuf A R Ahammed, Mounesh C D Kumar, RC Pramod, Ajay G Nayak, Nupura Vibhute
November 2014, 6(11):570-574
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.145471  PMID:25535605
Background: Psychiatric diseases like anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders can affect the mental and physical statuses of an individual. Aim: The study was to investigate the different oromucosal diseases (OMD) in psychiatric patients and to evaluate the correlation between these OMD to severity of anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out during a six-month period. Patients reporting to psychiatry department with anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as diagnosed by an experienced psychiatrist, were subjected to complete oral examination by a skilled oral diagnostician to check for OMD like oral lichen planus (OLP), aphthous stomatitis (AS) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS). During the above mentioned time interval, 1320 patients with any of the above mentioned psychiatric diseases were included in this study. Of these, 278 had anxiety, 398 had depression, 295 had schizophrenia and 349 had bipolar disorder. Equal number of individuals reported to the Oral Medicine and Radiology department for routine oral screening with no mucosal diseases were included as control group. Results: In this study, statistically significant increase in the OMD of the psychiatric patients was recorded when compared with the control group. The OMD were significantly higher in patients with anxiety (20.86%) followed by patients with depression (9.04%), schizophrenia (7.7%), bipolar disorder (7.4%) and control group (5.17%), respectively. Most prevalent OMD in patients with anxiety was AS (12%) followed by OLP (5.7%), and BMS (2.87%) respectively. Patients with moderate to severe anxiety and depression showed significantly higher prevalence of these OMD compared to the ones with mild anxiety and depression. The AS and OLP were significantly more in the younger age group (18-49 year) and BMS was higher in 50-77 year age group in both the study and control groups. Conclusion: A positive association was established between psychological alterations and OMD. Emotional alterations may act as a precipitating factor that could influence the initiation and development of different OMD. Hence, better harmonization is essential between dentist and psychiatrists for comprehensive management of psychosomatic disorders of the oral mucosa.
  1,276 289 5
An endocrine hypothesis for the genesis of atrial fibrillation: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress and glycogen accumulation in atrial tissues
Abraham A Embi, Benjamin J Scherlag
November 2014, 6(11):586-590
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.145478  PMID:25535608
Background: The underlying role of intracellular glycogen in atrial fibrillation is unknown. Experimental models developed in the goat have shown an increase of intracellular glycogen concentration in atrial myocytes resulting from prolonged pacing induced atrial fibrillation (AF). These observed glycogen molecules are as a result of structural remodeling and are known to replace the intracellular myofibrils causing myolysis in studies done in different animal models. The accumulation of glycogen is progressively and directly related to the duration of pacing-induced AF. Similar responses have been seen in clinically derived atrial tissues. Aims: We intend to present an endocrine hypothesis supported by published evidence that stress acting through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is a contributing metabolic factor responsible for the increase of glucose levels via the hormone cortisol. This excess glucose is then metabolized by the myocytes during each heart beat and stored as glycogen. A literature search was done, and published evidence supporting stress was shown to be the main factor for the formation of glucose leading to glycogen deposition to in the cardiac myocytes. Results: Stress on the HPA axis stimulates the adrenal glands to release the hormone cortisol in the blood stream; this in turn increases the cardiac tissue glycogen concentration. It is also known that during each beat, excess glucose is removed by the myocytes and stored as glycogen. As aforementioned, in the cardiac myocytes, dense glycogen content with/without loss of myofibrils has been detected in both human and animal models of AF. Conclusions: We hypothesize that the increase of the intrinsic glycogen concentration and distribution is a result of a metabolic disruption caused by stress through the HPA Axis. For example, in atrial myocytes, the glycogen molecules impede the normal intercellular communications leading to areas of slow conduction favoring reentrant-based AF.
  1,233 230 6
Association between fecal incontinence and objectively measured physical activity in U.S. adults
Paul D Loprinzi, Satish S Rao
November 2014, 6(11):575-579
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.145473  PMID:25535606
Background: Brisk physical activity may facilitate fecal incontinence due to physical activity-induced colonic motility. However, there currently are no studies that have examined the relationship between fecal incontinence and free-living physical activity behavior. Aim: Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between fecal incontinence and objectively measured physical activity among adults. Materials and Methods: A national sample of adults in the United States (n = 2565, 20-85 years) completed the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for a week to objectively measure physical activity behavior. Results: After adjustments, fecal incontinence was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (β = 0.85, P = 0.04), suggesting that lower perceived severity of fecal incontinence was associated with greater engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Fecal incontinence was not significantly associated with light-intensity physical activity (P = 0.27). Conclusion: Our results suggest that adults in the United States with greater perceived severity of fecal incontinence engage in less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; however, those with greater severity of fecal incontinence do not appear to have different levels of light-intensity physical activity behavior. Given the emerging research showing beneficial effects of light-intensity physical activity, health care professionals should encourage light-intensity physical activity to their patients with fecal incontinence.
  1,155 176 1
CASE REPORTS
Perforated jejunal diverticulum in the use of mycophenolate mofetil
Charat Thongprayoon, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Peter J Edmonds, Natanong Thamcharoen
November 2014, 6(11):599-600
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.145484  PMID:25535611
Context: Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare disease. Common acute complications include diverticulitis, intestinal obstruction, bleeding and perforation. Gastrointestinal tract perorations have also been rarely observed in the use of mycophenolate mofetil. Case Report: We report a 44-year-old man with end-stage renal disease post failed kidney transplant on low-dose mycophenolate mofetil who presented with acute onset of abdominal pain. He was successfully given the diagnosis of perforated jejunal diverticulum. The patient successfully underwent a segmental jejunal resection and anastomosis. He unfortunately developed a recurrent jejunal perforation a month later and again had the second segmental jejunal resection operation. Mycophenolate mofetil then was discontinued. Conclusion: The present case illustrates jejunal diverticulum perforation in the use of mycophenolate mofetil. Physicians should increase the awareness of this association of perforated jejunal diverticulum in patients using mycophenolate mofetil.
  1,071 194 1
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