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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2015| May  | Volume 7 | Issue 5  
    Online since May 26, 2015

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of pancreas
Norman Oneil Machado, Hani al Qadhi, Khalifa al Wahibi
May 2015, 7(5):160-175
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157477  PMID:26110127
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are neoplasms that are characterized by ductal dilation, intraductal papillary growth, and thick mucus secretion. This relatively recently defined pathology is evolving in terms of its etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and treatment guidelines. A PubMed database search was performed. All the relevant abstracts in English language were reviewed and the articles in which cases of IPMN could be identified were further scrutinized. Information of IPMN was derived, and duplication of information in several articles and those with areas of persisting uncertainties were excluded. The recent consensus guidelines were examined. The reported incidence of malignancy varies from 57% to 92% in the main duct-IPMN (MD-IPMN) and from 6% to 46% in the branch duct-IPMN (BD-IPMN). The features of high-risk malignant lesions that raise concern include obstructive jaundice in a patient with a cystic lesion in the pancreatic head, the findings on radiological imaging of a mass lesion of >30 mm, enhanced solid component, and the main pancreatic duct (MPD) of size ≥10 mm; while duct size 5-9 mm and cyst size <3 mm are considered as "worrisome features." Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are primary investigations in diagnosing and following up on these patients. The role of pancreatoscopy and the analysis of aspirated cystic fluid for cytology and DNA analysis is still to be established. In general, resection is recommended for most MD-IPMN, mixed variant, and symptomatic BD-IPMN. The 5-year survival of patients after surgical resection for noninvasive IPMN is reported to be at 77-100%, while for those with invasive carcinoma, it is significantly lower at 27-60%. The follow-up of these patients could vary from 6 months to 1 year and would depend on the risk stratification for invasive malignancy and the pathology of the resected specimen. The understanding of IPMN has evolved over the years. The recent guidelines have played a role in this regard.
  31 5,860 1,031
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity. The importance of preoperative evaluation and selection
Iswanto Sucandy, Dewi Chrestiana, Fernando Bonanni, Gintaras Antanavicius
May 2015, 7(5):189-193
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157624  PMID:26110129
Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is prevalent in morbidly obese patients, and its severity appears to correlate with body mass index (BMI). Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the status of GERD after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Materials and Methods: A prospectively maintained database of all the patients who underwent LSG from February 2008 to May 2011 was reviewed. Results: A total of 131 patients were included. The mean age and the BMI of the patients were 49.4 years and 48.9 kg/m 2 , respectively. Prior to LSG, subjective reflux symptoms were reported in 67 (51%) patients. Anatomical presence of hiatal hernia was endoscopically confirmed in 35 (52%) patients who reported reflux symptoms prior to LSG. All these patients underwent simultaneous hiatal hernia repair during their LSG. The overall mean operative time was 106 min (range: 48-212 min). There were no intra- and 30-day postoperative complications. Out of the 67 preoperative reflux patients, 32 (47.7%) reported resolution of their symptoms after the operation, 20 (29.9%) reported clinical improvement, and 12 (22.2%) reported unchanged or persistent symptoms. Three patients developed new-onset reflux symptoms, which were easily controlled with proton pump inhibitors. No patient required conversion to gastric bypass or duodenal switch because of the severe reflux symptoms. At 18 months, the follow-up data were available in 60% of the total patients. Conclusion: LSG results in resolution or improvement of the reflux symptoms in a large number of patients. Proper patient selection, complete preoperative evaluation to identify the presence of hiatal hernia, and good surgical techniques are the keys to achieve optimal outcomes.
  19 2,751 410
REVIEW ARTICLES
Tumor-suppressor genes, cell cycle regulatory checkpoints, and the skin
Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Michael S Howard
May 2015, 7(5):176-188
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157476  PMID:26110128
The cell cycle (or cell-division cycle) is a series of events that take place in a cell, leading to its division and duplication. Cell division requires cell cycle checkpoints (CPs) that are used by the cell to both monitor and regulate the progress of the cell cycle. Tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) or antioncogenes are genes that protect the cell from a single event or multiple events leading to cancer. When these genes mutate, the cell can progress to a cancerous state. We aimed to perform a narrative review, based on evaluation of the manuscripts published in MEDLINE-indexed journals using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms "tumor suppressor's genes," "skin," and "cell cycle regulatory checkpoints." We aimed to review the current concepts regarding TSGs, CPs, and their association with selected cutaneous diseases. It is important to take into account that in some cell cycle disorders, multiple genetic abnormalities may occur simultaneously. These abnormalities may include intrachromosomal insertions, unbalanced division products, recombinations, reciprocal deletions, and/or duplication of the inserted segments or genes; thus, these presentations usually involve several genes. Due to their complexity, these disorders require specialized expertise for proper diagnosis, counseling, personal and family support, and genetic studies. Alterations in the TSGs or CP regulators may occur in many benign skin proliferative disorders, neoplastic processes, and genodermatoses.
  19 3,907 636
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Cognitive function and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus in young adults
Satyajeet Roy, Nami Kim, Anjali Desai, Mahathi Komaragiri, Namrata Baxi, Navinder Jassil, Megan Blessinger, Maliha Khan, Robert Cole, Nayan Desai, Rocco Terrigno, Krystal Hunter
May 2015, 7(5):220-226
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157627  PMID:26110134
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with impairment of cognitive function. Studies show a strong negative correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and cognitive function in adult patients above the mean age of 60 years. In healthy adults, age-related cognitive impairment is mostly reported after the age of 60 years, hence the decline in cognitive function can be a part of normal aging without diabetes. Since the majority of patients with diabetes are between the ages of 40 and 59 years, it is crucial to ascertain whether the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin negatively correlate with the levels of cognitive function scores in adult patients of age 60 years or younger, similar to the way it correlates in patients older than 60 years of age, or not. Aims: We observed the relationship between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and the levels of cognitive function in patients of age 60 years or younger with T2DM. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two patients with T2DM underwent cognitive assessment testing by using a Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), and their cognitive function scores were correlated with their glycosylated hemoglobin levels, durations of diabetes, and levels of education. Results: Cognitive impairment was observed in 19.5% of the studied patients. We found a weakly negative relationship between the glycosylated hemoglobin level and cognitive function score (r = -0.292), a moderately negative relationship between the duration of diabetes and cognitive function score (r = -0.303), and a weakly positive relationship between the level of education and cognitive function score (r = 0.277). Conclusion: Cognitive impairment affects one-fifth of the patients of age 60 years or younger with T2DM. It is weakly negatively related to the glycosylated hemoglobin level, moderately negatively related to the duration of diabetes, and weakly positively related to the level of education.
  8 2,217 328
Telephonic consultation and follow-up in diabetics: Impact on metabolic profile, quality of life, and patient compliance
Rupinderjeet Kaur, Krishan Singh Kajal, Amarpreet Kaur, Paramdeep Singh
May 2015, 7(5):199-207
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157483  PMID:26110131
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM), being a long-term condition, requires consistent blood glucose monitoring and adjustment of doses of the antidiabetic drugs and insulin. Telehealth is an emerging field that can have a positive impact on the management of this disease. Aim: The aim was to study the impact of the frequency of consultation and follow-up on telephone of diagnosed follow-up patients of DM on glycemic and metabolic profiles, the patients' compliance, and their quality of life (QoL), and to compare the effectiveness of different modes of follow-up. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty patients were enrolled from the outpatient department (OPD) including both type 1 and type 2 DM patients who had already been diagnosed and were on treatment. They were randomly assigned to one of three groups, each consisting of 40 subjects, according to the mode of follow-up: A (rare, i.e., less frequent outpatient visits), B (moderate, i.e., more frequent outpatient visits), and C (frequent, i.e., more frequent outpatient visits with weekly telephonic consultation). Metabolic profiles and the QoL were monitored. The patients' compliance with and adherence to the treatment, and dietary and exercise advice were assessed. Results: The patients' compliance with and adherence to the treatment was higher in group C, followed by groups B and A. There was a net decrease in adverse events, with an increase in the frequency of follow-up. Changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) suggested a positive impact of weekly telephonic consultation. The lipid profile was also positively affected, with maximum improvement being in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and triglycerides. There was an improvement in the QoL domains pertaining to physical health and endurance in patients with higher frequency of follow-ups. There was no effect on emotional or mental health. There was an overall deterioration of the financial domain, being most marked in group B. The treatment satisfaction questionnaire showed better results in the telephone intervention group. Conclusion: Telephonic consultation can be a useful measure to improve the follow-up and management of patients with DM.
  7 2,394 410
CASE REPORTS
Pulmonary tuberculosis in a patient with cystic fibrosis
Naveen Patil, Asween Marco, Maria Theresa Montales, Nutan Bhaskar, Penchala Mittadodla, Leonard N Mukasa
May 2015, 7(5):233-235
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157494  PMID:26110137
Context: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection is rarely seen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Case Report: We report a 24-year-old CF patient with fever, cough, hemoptysis, and weight loss of 1week duration prior to admission. Past sputum cultures grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The patient was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics based on previous culture data, but failed to improve. Chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) chest revealed chronic collapse of the anterior subsegment of right upper lobe and multiple bilateral cavitary lesions which were worse compared to prior films. MTB was suspected and was confirmed by positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears and cultures. After receiving first-line antituberculous drugs, the patient's condition markedly improved. Conclusion: MTB is an infrequent finding, but considered a potential pathogen in CF patients, and may lead to serious pulmonary complications if there is a delay in diagnosis and treatment.
  6 1,923 206
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Long-term results of transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus in adolescents and adults with amplatzer duct occluder
Mostafa Behjati-Ardakani, Mansour Rafiei, Mohammad Amin Behjati-Ardakani, Mohammadreza Vafaeenasab, Mohammadtaghi Sarebanhassanabadi
May 2015, 7(5):208-211
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157478  PMID:26110132
Background: Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with the Amplatzer ductal occluder (ADO) has become a standard procedure in most pediatric patients. However, experience in adults and adolescents is limited. Our experience of transcatheter closure of PDA with ADO in adolescents and adults is presented in this study. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate long-term outcomes of transcatheter closure of PDA in adolescents and adults with ADO. Materials and Methods: In this study, 69 patients (52 females and 17 males) with PDA underwent transcatheter closure between May 2004 and October 2012. The procedure was performed under fluoroscopic guidance. Chest radiograph, electrocardiogram, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), and clinical assessment of the patients were conducted before the procedure. Clinical and echocardiographic follow-ups were performed on day 1 of the 1st month, 6 th month, and 12 th month and then yearly after the procedure. Results: The mean and standard deviation age of the patients was 18.08 ± 7.25 years (ranging 10-38 years). The mean and standard deviation angiographic diameter of PDA was 7.78 ± 2.78 mm. The mean and standard deviation size of the implanted device was 9.3 ± 2.9. The mean and standard deviation average pulmonary artery pressure was 32.1 ± 14.2 mmHg. The mean pulmonary flow/systemic flow ratio was 2.2 ± 0.61. The devices were successfully implanted in all patients (100%). Immediately after device implantation, 47 patients had residual shunts. The residual shunts disappeared in all the patients, except for one that lingered until 24 h after the procedure. No severe complication occurred at the immediate and long-term follow-ups. Conclusions: The long-term results suggested that transcatheter closure of PDA with ADO is a safe and effective treatment for adolescents and adults with PDA. Low complication rates and short hospital stays make this procedure the treatment of choice in most cardiovascular centers worldwide.
  6 2,844 282
Status of Superoxide dismutase in transfusion dependent thalassaemia
Lantip Rujito, Sri Mulatsih, Abdul Salam M Sofro
May 2015, 7(5):194-198
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157480  PMID:26110130
Background: Thalassemia is a collection of genetic impairments in beta and alpha genes causing various states of anemia. Severe types of the disease need lifelong transfusions, leading to oxidant-antioxidant disturbance due to massive iron deposits. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant enzyme Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and ferritin levels of thalassemia major patients in a peripheral health facility. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and nine probands were recruited and performed laboratory experiments for SOD and Ferritin levels. Chelation administration and clinical score were taken from interviewing the family and from medical report data. Results: The study showed that SOD intensity was lower (162.41 u/ml) compared to the normal cutoff point (P = 0.001), while the mean of Ferritin levels was ten times over the normal value (4226,67 ng/dl). Observations also reported that chelation medicine was not administrated properly. Conclusions: The data indicates that thalassemic patients have oxidant-antioxidant uproar due to oxidative stress. Monitored chelating administration, selective antioxidant, and a well-balanced diet may prevent oxidative injury.
  4 2,524 264
Adrenal mass in patients who underwent abdominal computed tomography examination
Hassan Al-Thani, Ayman El-Menyar, Marym Al-Sulaiti, Hesham ElGohary, Ahmed Al-Malki, Mohammad Asim, AbdelHakem Tabeb
May 2015, 7(5):212-219
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157482  PMID:26110133
Background: Adrenal masses are usually discovered incidentally (IAM) during abdominal computed tomography (CT). Aims: We aimed to describe the prevalence, management, and outcome of incidentally discovered adrenal mass on radiological investigation. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted to look for IAM identified by abdominal CT performed for other reasons between 2004 and 2008 and were followed for 4 years. IAM patients with known malignancy or clinically evident adrenal disease or overt disease originally missed due to insufficient clinical examination were excluded. Results: A total of 13,115 patients underwent abdominal CT, of which 136 were identified with adrenal mass (69 males and 67 females). Overall, 84 patients had benign IAM and six had primary adrenal carcinoma (all had tumor size ≥4 cm and five were males). Hormonal evaluation was performed in 80 cases, which revealed hypersecretion in 10 cases (six had Conn's syndrome and four had pheochromocytoma). Males had higher frequency of right-sided IAMs; whereas, left-sided IAM swere more common among females (P = 0.02). Seven patients underwent surgery and all were males (one Conn's syndrome, one pheochromocytoma, three primary adrenal adenocarcinoma, one benign nonfunctional adenoma, and one metastatic tumor). Only one patient died due to brain metastasis. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma is 1% in Qatar. Unfortunately, hormonal evaluation, surgical referral, and follow-up are not appropriate in this study. Moreover, screening of IAM warrants more attention to rule out malignancy. This work could be of value as a local auditing for the current management.
  3 2,275 245
CASE REPORTS
Down with the flu: Hyponatremia in a patient with influenza
Ranjan Pathak, Ashish Khanal, Dilli Ram Poudel, Paras Karmacharya
May 2015, 7(5):227-228
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157488  PMID:26110135
Context: Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is a common cause of hyponatremia. Although it has been associated with different pulmonary infections, there have been only few case reports describing the association of SIADH with influenza. Case Report: We report a case of SIADH in a patient with influenza who was successfully treated with fluid restriction. Conclusion: It is essential for clinicians to be aware of the association between influenza and SIADH.
  - 2,070 199
Computed tomography in diagnosis of admantinoma
Akansha Misra, Deepankar Misra, Shalu Rai, Sapna Panjwani, Vikash Ranjan, Mukul Prabhat, Kanika Bhalla, Puneet Bhatnagar
May 2015, 7(5):229-232
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157493  PMID:26110136
Context: Admantinoma is second most common benign odontogenic tumor which clinically appears as an aggressive odontogenic tumor, often asymptomatic and slow growing, associated with symptoms such as swelling, dental malocclusion, pain, and paresthesia of the affected area. The radiographic appearance may vary from unilocular to multilocular radiolucencies, imparting a characteristic honey comb, soap bubble appearance or may resemble a caricature of spider. Case Report: This report highlights the importance of conventional and advanced imaging in the diagnosis of large and invasive lesions. Patient reported with complaint of swelling in jaw, which progressively increased; and was found to be bony hard, both intra- and extraorally. Radiographs revealed large multilocular radiolucency on left body and ramus of mandible with soap bubble pattern and knife edged root resorption. Computed tomographic examination evaluated the extent of the lesion, internal structure, and relation to adjacent structures; further a reconstructed image was obtained to evaluate extent of destruction in three dimensions. Conclusion: Computed tomography has an important role in the diagnosis and treatment planning is imperative as it is superior in revealing the cortical destruction and extension into the neighboring soft tissues than conventional radiography.
  - 1,839 167
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Infection control in a far far away galaxy: New and alternative learning tool from popular culture to improve the antimicrobial stewardship
Alessandro Perrella, Carmela Russo, Antonio Giuliani, Ciro Esposito, Paola Saturnino
May 2015, 7(5):236-237
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157639  PMID:26110138
  - 1,728 149
Burmese community's beliefs on inconsolable crying
Aung Zaw Win
May 2015, 7(5):238-239
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157641  PMID:26110139
  - 1,394 111
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