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  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| March  | Volume 8 | Issue 3  
    Online since March 21, 2016

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Zika virus: A global threat to humanity: A comprehensive review and current developments
Adrija Hajra, Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay, Shyamal Kumar Hajra
March 2016, 8(3):123-128
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.179112  PMID:27114968
At present, one of greatest concerns of medical personnel is Zika virus (ZIKV). Though it has been reported for quite a long time, its rapid emergence, new modes of transmission, and more importantly, the congenital anomalies associated with it have made the situation worse. It was first detected in 1947. After that, this infection was found in the countries of Africa as well as Asia. At present, interestingly it has been reported from Brazil. Microcephaly and intracranial calcification have been postulated to be related to maternal infection with this virus. Though it is asymptomatic in maximum number of cases, the serious complications of the infection should be prevented at the earliest. No specific treatment and vaccine are available till now. But research continues and hopefully, success is not far off. The right information about this infection should reach patients as well as physicians. It will prevent unnecessary panic. In August, Brazil is going to organize the Olympic and Paralympic Games and all eyes are now focused on this. In this review article, the authors have tried to focus on the important points about this infection. The data were gathered after searching for relevant articles published in PubMed, the World Health Organization's (WHO) website, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) website, and some other related websites on the Internet.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Safety of 50,000-100,000 units of vitamin D3/week in vitamin D-deficient, hypercholesterolemic patients with reversible statin intolerance
Vybhav Jetty, Charles J Glueck, Ping Wang, Parth Shah, Marloe Prince, Kevin Lee, Michael Goldenberg, Ashwin Kumar
March 2016, 8(3):156-162
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.179133  PMID:27114973
Background: Vitamin D deficiency (<32 ng/mL) is a reversible cause of statin-intolerance, usually requiring vitamin D3 (50,000-100,000 IU/week) to normalize serum D, allowing reinstitution of statins. Longitudinal safety assessment of serum vitamin D, calcium, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is important. Aims: Prospectively assess the safety-efficacy of vitamin D3 therapy. Materials and Methods: In 282 statin-intolerant hypercholesterolemic patients for 6 months and in 112 of the 282 patients for 12 months, with low-entry serum vitamin D (<32 ng/mL), we assessed safety-efficacy of vitamin D3 therapy (50,000-100,000 IU/week). Results: On mean (66,600 IU) and median (50,000 IU) of vitamin D3/week in 282 patients at 6 months, serum vitamin D rose from pretreatment (21-median) to 46 ng/mL (P < 0.0001), and became high (>100 ng/mL) but not toxic (>150 ng/mL) in 4 patients (1.4%). Median serum calcium was unchanged from entry (9.60 mg/dL) to 9.60 at 6 months (P = .36), with no trend of change (P = .16). Median eGFR was unchanged from entry (84 mL/min/1.73) to 83 at 6 months (P = .57), with no trend of change (P = .59). On vitamin D3 71,700 (mean) and 50,000 IU/week (median) at 12 months in 112 patients, serum vitamin D rose from pretreatment (21-median) to 51 ng/mL (P < 0.0001), and became high (>100 but <150 ng/mL) in 1 (0.9%) at 12 months. Median serum calcium was unchanged from entry (9.60 mg/dL) to 9.60 mg/dL and 9.60 mg/dL at 6 months and 12 months, respectively; P > 0.3. eGFR did not change from 79 mL/min/1.73 at entry to 74 mL/min/1.73 and 77 mL/min/1.73 at 6 months and 12 months, P > 0.3. There was no trend in the change in serum calcium (P > 0.5 for 6 months and 12 months), and no change of eGFR for 6 months and 12 months, P > 0.15. Conclusions: Vitamin D3 therapy (50,000-100,000 IU/week) was safe and effective when given for 12 months to reverse statin intolerance in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Serum vitamin D rarely exceeded 100 ng/mL, never reached toxic levels, and there were no significant change in serum calcium or eGFR.
  2,364 434 9
Periodic acid-Schiff staining parallels the immunoreactivity seen by direct immunofluorescence in autoimmune skin diseases
Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Yulieth Alexandra Upegui Zapata, Michael S Howard
March 2016, 8(3):151-155
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.179132  PMID:27114972
Background: In many countries and laboratories, techniques such as direct immunofluorescence (DIF) are not available for the diagnosis of skin diseases. Thus, these laboratories are limited in the full diagnoses of autoimmune skin diseases, vasculitis, and rheumatologic diseases. In our experience with these diseases and the patient's skin biopsies, we have noted a positive correlation between periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and immunofluorescence patterns; however, these were just empiric observations. In the current study, we aim to confirm these observations, given the concept that the majority of autoantibodies are glycoproteins and should thus be recognized by PAS staining. Aims: To compare direct immunofluorescent and PAS staining, in multiple autoimmune diseases that are known to exhibit specific direct immunofluorescent patterns. Materials and Methods: We studied multiple autoimmune skin diseases: Five cases of bullous pemphigoid, five cases of pemphigus vulgaris, ten cases of cutaneous lupus, ten cases of autoimmune vasculitis, ten cases of lichen planus (LP), and five cases of cutaneous drug reactions (including one case of erythema multiforme). In addition, we utilized 45 normal skin control specimens from plastic surgery reductions. Results: We found a 98% positive correlation between DIF and PAS staining patterns over all the disease samples. Conclusion: We recommend that laboratories without access to DIF always perform PAS staining in addition to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, for a review of the reactivity pattern.
  2,070 255 1
Central versus peripheral pulmonary embolism: Analysis of the impact on the physiological parameters and long-term survival
José Luis Alonso Martinez, Francisco Javier Anniccherico Sánchez, Miren Aranzazu Urbieta Echezarreta, Ione Villar García, Jorge Rojo Álvaro
March 2016, 8(3):134-142
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.179128  PMID:27114970
Background: Studies aimed at assessing whether the emboli lodged in the central pulmonary arteries carry a worse prognosis than more peripheral emboli have yielded controversial results. Aims: To explore the impact on survival and long-term prognosis of central pulmonary embolism. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients diagnosed with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism by means of computed tomography (CT) angiography were evaluated at episode index and traced through the computed system of clinical recording and following-up. Central pulmonary embolism was diagnosed when thrombi were seen in the trunk or in the main pulmonary arteries and peripheral pulmonary embolism when segmental or subsegmental arteries were affected. Results: A total of 530 consecutive patients diagnosed with pulmonary embolism were evaluated; 255 patients had central pulmonary embolism and 275 patients had segmental or subsegmental pulmonary embolism. Patients with central pulmonary embolism were older, had higher plasma levels of N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP), troponin I, D-dimer, alveolar-arterial gradient, and shock index (P < .001 for each one). Patients with central pulmonary embolism had an all-cause mortality of 40% while patients with segmental or subsegmental pulmonary embolism (PE) had an overall mortality of 27% and odds ratio of 1.81 [confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.16-1.9]. Survival was lower in patients with central PE than in patients with segmental or subsegmental pulmonary embolism, even after avoiding confounders (P = .018). Conclusions: Apart from a greater impact on hemodynamics, gas exchange, and right ventricular dysfunction, central pulmonary embolism associates a shorter survival and an increased long-term mortality.
  1,947 354 10
Association of low levels of vitamin D with chronic stable angina: A prospective case-control study
Ab Hameed Raina, Mohammad Sultan Allai, Zafar Amin Shah, Khalid Hamid Changal, Manzoor Ahmad Raina, Fayaz Ahmad Bhat
March 2016, 8(3):143-150
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.179130  PMID:27114971
Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death and disability in developed countries. Chronic stable angina is the initial manifestation of CAD in approximately 50% of the patients. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D is crucial for cardiovascular health. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in our region is 83%. A low level of vitamin D is associated with chronic stable angina. Aim: This study was aimed at supporting or refuting this hypothesis in our population. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective case-control study. We studied 100 cases of chronic stable angina and compared them with 100 matched controls. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as <20 ng/mL, vitamin D insufficiency as 20-30 ng/mL and normal vitamin D level as 31-150 ng/mL. Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among cases and controls was 75% and 10%, respectively. 75% of the cases were vitamin D-deficient (<20 ng/mL); 12% were vitamin D-insufficient (20-30 ng/mL), and 13% had normal vitamin D levels (31-150 ng/mL). None had a toxic level of vitamin D. Among the controls, 10% were vitamin D-deficient, 33% were vitamin D-insufficient, and 57% had normal vitamin D levels. The mean vitamin level among cases and controls was 15.53 ng/mL and 40.95 ng/mL, respectively, with the difference being statistically significant (P ≤ 0.0001). There was no statistically significant relation between the disease severities, i.e., on coronary angiography (CAG) with vitamin D level. Among the cases, we found that an increasing age was inversely related to vitamin D levels (P = 0.027). Conclusion: Our study indicates a correlation between vitamin D deficiency and chronic stable angina. Low levels may be an independent, potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor.
  1,860 297 3
Burden among caregivers of children living with human immunodeficiency virus in North India
Ramesh Chand Chauhan, Sanjay Kumar Rai, Shashi Kant, Rakesh Lodha, Nand Kumar, Neelima Singh
March 2016, 8(3):129-133
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.179117  PMID:27114969
Background: Due to wider access to and free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program, the number of children dying due to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related causes has declined and the nature and duration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS caregiving has also dramatically altered. The care of children living with HIV/AIDS (CLHA) places a significant additional burden on the caregivers. Aims: This study was conducted to assess the perceived burden among caregivers of children living with HIV in North India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study among 156 CLHA-caregiver dyads in North India was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011. Data were collected by using a pretested structured interview schedule. The caregiver burden was measured with a 36-item scale adapted from Burden Assessment Schedule of Schizophrenia Research Foundation (BASS). Child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, caregiving burden, the knowledge of caregivers, and issues related to health care, nutrition, education, and psychological aspects were studied. Results: Caregivers had a mean age of 35.9 ± 10.2 years. Women accounted for over three-fourth (76.9%) of the caregivers. Nearly two-third of them (65.4%) reported as living with HIV. The mean caregiver burden score was 68.7 ± 2.9. A majority of the caregivers reported either low or moderate burden. Standardized percentage score was high in the domains of physical and mental health, external support, patients' behavior, and caregivers' strategy and seemed to be comparatively less in the other domains such as support of the patient and taking responsibility. Conclusions: Caring of children is a universal practice but there is a need of special care for children living with HIV. The majority of caregivers who were usually the mothers perceived the burden and need to be assisted in caring for the child. Stigma and discrimination with HIV infection further increased the burden as caregivers did not disclose the HIV status to any near and dear one.
  1,820 267 1
CASE REPORTS
Pancreaticoureteral fistula: A rare complication of chronic pancreatitis
Hiren G Patel, Yana Cavanagh, Sohail N Shaikh
March 2016, 8(3):163-166
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.179134  PMID:27114974
Context: Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition that may result in progressive parenchymal damage and fibrosis which can ultimately lead to destruction of pancreatic tissue. Fistulas to the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, and peripancreatic organs may form as a complications of pancreatitis. This case report describes an exceedingly rare complication, pancreaticoureteral fistula (PUF). Only two additional cases of PUF have been reported. However, they evolved following traumatic injury to the ureter or pancreatic duct. No published reports describe PUF as a complication of pancreatitis. Case Report: A 69-year-old Hispanic female with a past medical history of cholecystectomy, pancreatic pseudocyst, and recurrent episodes of pancreatitis presented with severe, sharp, and constant abdominal pain. Upon imaging, a fistulous tract was visualized between the left renal pelvis (at the level of an upper pole calyx) and the pancreatic duct and a ureteral stent was placed to facilitate fistula closure. Following the procedure, the patient attained symptomatic relief and oral intake was resumed. A left retrograde pyelogram was repeated 2 months after the initial stent placement and demonstrating no evidence of a persistent fistulous tract. Conclusion: Due to PUF's unclear etiology and possible variance of presentation, it is important for physicians to keep this rare complication of pancreatitis in mind, especially, when evaluating a patient with recurrent pancreatitis, urinary symptoms and abnormal imaging within the urinary collecting system and pancreas.
  1,528 179 1
Acute severe aortic regurgitation: Imaging with pathological correlation
Rajesh Janardhanan, Ahmed Khurshid Pasha
March 2016, 8(3):167-168
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.179137  PMID:27114975
Context: Acute aortic regurgitation (AR) is an important finding associated with a wide variety of disease processes. Its timely diagnosis is of utmost importance. Delay in diagnosis could prove fatal. Case Report: We describe a case of acute severe AR that was timely diagnosed using real time three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiogram (3D TEE). Not only did it diagnose but also the images obtained by 3D TEE clearly matched with the pathologic specimen. Using this sophisticated imaging modality that is mostly available at the tertiary centers helped in the timely diagnosis, which lead to the optimal management saving his life. Conclusion: Echocardiography and especially 3D TEE can diagnose AR very accurately. Surgical intervention is the definitive treatment but medical therapy is utilized to stabilize the patient initially.
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LETTER TO EDITOR
Patent foramen ovale and migraine: Casual or causal
Adrija Hajra, Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay
March 2016, 8(3):169-170
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.179139  PMID:27114976
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