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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: Pathways and transcription factors that involved in transcriptional regulation of PON1 expression in liver. All processes occur in liver, and bile acid -stimulated synthesis of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19; or FGF-15 in mouse) might be additionally occur in ileum. Positions of regulatory elements are shown based on PON1 gene in human. Arrows represent activation effect. Signals from PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and high glucose activate transcription factor Sp1 through protein kinases C (PKC) and p44/ p42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)

Figure 1: Pathways and transcription factors that involved in transcriptional regulation of PON1 expression in liver. All processes occur in liver, and bile acid -stimulated synthesis of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19; or FGF-15 in mouse) might be additionally occur in ileum. Positions of regulatory elements are shown based on PON1 gene in human. Arrows represent activation effect. Signals from PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and high glucose activate transcription factor Sp1 through protein kinases C (PKC) and p44/ p42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)