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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: Examples of staining of collagen type IV antibody in the skin by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) (a,b,c,e, and h) and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) (d,f,g,i) under normal conditions, as well as in a patient with lupus erythematosus. All staining was performed as previously documented.[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31] We utilized an antibody to collagen IV from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, California, USA). 1 a and b, Double positive DIF staining of the BMZ 'lupus band' in a lupus patient using an FITC conjugated antibody to human IgG, overlapping with the staining of Texas red conjugated collagen IV, resulting in orange staining (white arrows). The blood vessels also stained positive with the antibody to collagen IV (red staining; yellow arrows). c. Positive DIF staining of the cutaneous BMZ using the antibody to collagen IV alone (red staining; white arrow at the BMZ, yellow arrow showing positivity on a dermal blood vessel). d. Positive IHC staining for collagen IV antibodies around a nerve (brown staining; red arrow), blood vessels (green arrow), and eccrine sweat gland ducts (black arrows). e. Positive DIF staining of a sweat gland coil BMZ, utilizing Texas red conjugated collagen IV (red staining). The nuclei of the cells were counterstained with Dapi (blue staining; yellow arrow). f. Positive IHC staining of eccrine glands for collagen IV (brown staining; red arrow). g. Positive IHC staining of eccrine gland ducts (brown staining; red arrow) and of small blood vessels (green arrow). h. Positive DIF staining of skin blood vessels utilizing Texas red conjugated collagen IV (red staining, yellow arrow). The nuclei of the cells were counterstained with Dapi (blue). i. Positive IHC staining for collagen IV antibody on a large blood vessel in a subcutaneous adipose tissue septum (brown staining; red arrow)

Figure 1: Examples of staining of collagen type IV antibody in the skin by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) (a,b,c,e, and h) and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) (d,f,g,i) under normal conditions, as well as in a patient with lupus erythematosus. All staining was performed as previously documented.<sup>[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31]</sup> We utilized an antibody to collagen IV from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, California, USA). 1 a and b, Double positive DIF staining of the BMZ 'lupus band' in a lupus patient using an FITC conjugated antibody to human IgG, overlapping with the staining of Texas red conjugated collagen IV, resulting in orange staining (white arrows). The blood vessels also stained positive with the antibody to collagen IV (red staining; yellow arrows). c. Positive DIF staining of the cutaneous BMZ using the antibody to collagen IV alone (red staining; white arrow at the BMZ, yellow arrow showing positivity on a dermal blood vessel). d. Positive IHC staining for collagen IV antibodies around a nerve (brown staining; red arrow), blood vessels (green arrow), and eccrine sweat gland ducts (black arrows). e. Positive DIF staining of a sweat gland coil BMZ, utilizing Texas red conjugated collagen IV (red staining). The nuclei of the cells were counterstained with Dapi (blue staining; yellow arrow). f. Positive IHC staining of eccrine glands for collagen IV (brown staining; red arrow). g. Positive IHC staining of eccrine gland ducts (brown staining; red arrow) and of small blood vessels (green arrow). h. Positive DIF staining of skin blood vessels utilizing Texas red conjugated collagen IV (red staining, yellow arrow). The nuclei of the cells were counterstained with Dapi (blue). i. Positive IHC staining for collagen IV antibody on a large blood vessel in a subcutaneous adipose tissue septum (brown staining; red arrow)