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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 580-585

The risk of coronary heart disease in patients with kidney stones: A systematic review and meta-analysis

1 Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
2 University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
3 SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, USA

Correspondence Address:
Wisit Cheungpasitporn
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minesota, 55905, USA

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1947-2714.145477

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Background: The reported risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with a history of kidney stones is conflicting. Aims: The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between a history of kidney stones and CHD risk. Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception until April 04, 2014. Studies that reported odds ratios or hazard ratios comparing the risk of CHD in patients with a history of kidney stones versus those without a history of kidney stones were included. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. Results: Seven study populations from four cohort studies and one cross-sectional study were identified and included in the data analysis. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of CHD in patients with kidney stones was 1.24 (95% CI, 1.10-1.40). This result remained significant (RR, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.08-1.41]) when the sensitivity analysis was restricted to only cohort studies. A history of kidney stones was associated with increased CHD risk in females (RR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.12-1.82]), whereas the association was not significant in males (RR, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.94-1.38]). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a statistically significant increased risk of CHD in female patients with prior kidney stones. This finding suggests that a history of kidney stones is a risk factor for CHD in females and may impact clinical management.

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