Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
Visit old site
Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 418

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 453-459

Predictors of loss to follow-up in patients living with HIV/AIDS after initiation of antiretroviral therapy

1 Department of Public Health, Aman College of Health Sciences, Mizan-Teferi, Ethiopia
2 Department of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan-Teferi, Ethiopia

Date of Web Publication24-Sep-2014

Correspondence Address:
Salahuddin Mohammed
Department of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan-Teferi, P.O BOX: 260
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1947-2714.141636

Rights and Permissions

Background: Long-term regular follow up of ART is an important component of HIV care. Patients who are lost to follow-up (LTFU) while on treatment compromise their own health and the long-term success of ART programs. Aim: This study was aimed at determining the incidence and risk factors for LTFU in HIV patients on ART at ART clinic of Mizan-Aman General Hospital, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 2133 people living with HIV/AIDS and attending an ART clinic between 2005 and 2013 was undertaken. LTFU was defined as not taking an ART refill for a period of 3 months or longer from the last attendance for refill and not yet classified as 'dead' or 'transferred-out'. The log-rank test was used to measure differences in time to LTFU between groups and Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to measure predictors of LTFU. Results: Of 2133 patients, 53.9% were female. The mean (SD) age of the cohort was 31.5 (8.0), 16 (2.2), and 3.8 (3.0) years for adults, adolescents, and children, respectively. Around 574 (26.7%) patients were defined as LTFU. The cumulative incidence of LTFU was 8.8 (95% CIs 8.1-9.6) per 1000 person months. Patients with regimen substitution (HR 5.2; 95% CIs 3.6-7.3), non-isoniazid (INH) prophylaxis (HR 3.7; 95% CIs 2.3-6.2), adolescent (HR 2.1; 95% CIs 1.3-3.4), and had a baseline CD 4 count < 200 cells/mm 3 (HR 1.7, 95% CIs 1.3-2.2) were at higher risk of LTFU. WHO clinical stage III (HR 0.6; 95% CIs 0.4-0.9) and IV (HR 0.8; 95% CIs 0.6-1.0) patients at entry were less likely to be LTFU than clinical stage I patients. There was no significant difference in risk of LTFU in males and females. Conclusion: Overall, these data suggested that LTFU in this study was high. Patients phase of life, drug related factors, and clinical stages were associated with LTFU in this study. Effective control measures in the at-risk population need to be implemented to improve retention.

Keywords: Anti-retroviral therapy, AIDS, CD4, Cohort, Ethiopia, HIV, Lost to follow up, Mizan-Teferi, Predictors

How to cite this article:
Berheto TM, Haile DB, Mohammed S. Predictors of loss to follow-up in patients living with HIV/AIDS after initiation of antiretroviral therapy. North Am J Med Sci 2014;6:453-9

How to cite this URL:
Berheto TM, Haile DB, Mohammed S. Predictors of loss to follow-up in patients living with HIV/AIDS after initiation of antiretroviral therapy. North Am J Med Sci [serial online] 2014 [cited 2023 Jan 31];6:453-9. Available from: https://www.najms.org/text.asp?2014/6/9/453/141636

  Introduction Top

The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed national AIDS responses and has had a huge positive impact on health. [1] ART has been shown to reduce transmission of HIV and HIV-related morbidity and mortality. [2] In 2012, 9.7 million people received ART in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) [1] and, as of 2013, ART prevented an estimated 4.2 million deaths in LMICs in 2002-2012. [1] However, while increased access to ART has continued throughout the world, disparities in ART access still exist.

Despite improved and highly successful programmatic coverage with ART, significant numbers of adults and children drop out of care at various points along the treatment pathway and treatment gains fail to reach sufficient numbers of children and adolescents. [1] It is essential to understand how and why people drop out of treatment programs, since retention of people on ART and ensuring adherence to treatment are critical determinants of successful long-term outcomes. Studies in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that about half of people who test HIV-positive are lost between testing and being assessed for eligibility for therapy, and 32% of people considered eligible for ART are then lost between eligibility assessment and initiation of ART. [3] Data from 23 countries indicate that average retention for people on ART decreases over time, from about 86% at 12 months to 72% at 60 months. [1] Loss to follow-up (LTFU) negatively impacts on the immunological benefit of ART and increases AIDS-related morbidity, mortality, and hospitalizations. [4] LTFU in patients receiving ART can result in serious consequences, such as discontinuation of treatment, drug toxicity, treatment failure due to poor adherence, and drug resistance; [5],[6],[7] this results in an increased risk of death [8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13] of up to 40% in studies of patients LTFU in sub-Saharan Africa. [14],[15] Poor nutritional status, lower CD4 count, Tuberculosis (TB) co-infection, advanced clinical staging, younger age, adverse drug reactions, gaps in services, and accessibility to services are some of the predictors reported to be associated with LTFU. [3],[14],[16],[17],[18],[19]

Most studies from sub-Saharan countries have estimated that 20-40% of patients on ART are lost to follow-up due to underlying causative factors. [20],[21] Ethiopia has a national HIV prevalence of 1.9% [22] but the magnitude and predictors of LTFU after initiation of ART are not well-investigated. There are ongoing efforts to develop comprehensive strategies and recommendations to improve monitoring and optimize retention in care. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of, and identify potential risk factors for, LTFU in an ART clinic in southwest Ethiopia.

  Materials and Methods Top

Ethical approval

Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the Mizan-Tepi University. Written informed consent was not feasible because this was analysis of secondary data retrieved from an electronic database of the Hospital. Data were anonymized and handled confidentially during all phases of research activities.

Design and study setting

A retrospective cohort study was conducted in all patients who initiated ART at the governmental Mizan-Aman General Hospital in the Southern Nations Nationalities People Regional state of Ethiopia, 574 km southwest from Addis Ababa. This ART service was initiated in 2003 and patients who had received ART since 2005 were identified from the program database and selected for study.

Description of loss to follow up

LTFU was defined as not taking an ART refill for a period of 3 months or longer from the last attendance for refill and not yet classified as 'dead' or 'transferred-out'. [3] The time to LTFU was calculated in months according to the time interval between the dates of ART initiation to drop out, as recorded by the ART registration health information data manager. The cohort was stratified into three age-groups: Children (age ≤10 years), adolescents (age 11-19 years), and adults (age ≥20 years) as used by previous studies. [23],[24]

Data source and collection

The data for this research was secondary data collected routinely in the hospital for clinical monitoring and evaluation purposes and entered in an ART electronic database during the follow-up time. Further details are fully described elsewhere. [23] The primary outcome variable was LTFU from ART follow-up care after initiation of treatment, confirmed by reviewing medical registration at the hospital, noted by ART adherence supporters. Data recording started from the date that patients started regular HIV care in the clinic to confirmation of a final event. Socio-demographic characteristics such as age and sex, ART drugs received, CD4 counts, clinical staging (I-IV), TB co-morbidity, functional status (working, ambulatory, or bed-ridden), and outcomes were all included for this study.

All data relating to patients with an HIV-positive diagnosis (CD4 count ≤200 cells/mm 3 or who met clinical staging (WHO Stage III or IV) according to national ART guidelines effective up to 2012) and who initiated ART prior to 2012 were included. Patients with a CD4 count less than 350 cells/mm 3 were eligible to take ART medication, based on 2010 WHO guidelines. Patients of any age who commenced ART at the due date were considered eligible for study. A total of 2655 patients had enrolled to receive ART services and all data from those living with HIV were retrieved for analysis. A proportion of HIV patients (522; 19.7%) were transfer-out who continued their ART medication elsewhere and were therefore excluded from the analysis.

Statistical analysis

The database was recorded in Microsoft Excel, checked for consistencies and completeness, and then cleaned and edited prior to performing analysis in SPSS 20.0 and STATA 11. The patient characteristics were described in terms of mean/median or percentage, as appropriate. The Kaplan-Meier technique was used to estimate time to LTFU after initiation of ART, with the log-rank test being used to test the significance of observed differences between groups. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine predictors of LTFU, expressed as estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

  Results Top

A total of 2133 patients on ART between 2005 and 2013 and followed for 65,022 person-months were included in the statistical analysis. The number of clients who started ART each year is shown in [Figure 1]. The median (IQR) follow-up was 25 (8-47) months. Of 2133 patients, 128 (6%) were children, 74 (3.5%) were adolescents, and 1931 (90.5%) were adults. The mean (standard deviation) age of the cohort was 31.5 (8.0), 16 (2.2), and 3.8 (3.0) years for adults, adolescents, and children, respectively. 1149 (53.9%) patients were female and there was a higher proportion of females in the adolescent (63, 85.1%) and adult (1036, 53.7%) groups, whereas there were more males in the children group (78, 60.9%), [Table 1]. Only 78%, 50%, and 38% of child, adolescent, and adult participants, respectively, were started on ART with CD4 counts ≥200 cells/mm 3 . However, there was a trend to a higher baseline CD4 count in adults and adolescents over time with cohort enrolment; those who were enrolled earlier had lower baseline CD4 counts than those who started later. TB co-infection was present in 19.5% of children, 23% of adolescents, and 21.5% of adults throughout the follow-up period.

Regimen substitutions were made in 18% (n = 354) of adults, 14% (n = 18) of children, and 23% (n = 17) of adolescents. Drug toxicities were responsible for 50% of regimen substitutions in adults, 47% in adolescents, and 27% in children. Reasons for regimen substitution included pregnancy 41 (11.6%), new TB infection 24 (6.2%), planning to fall pregnancy 7 (2%), advent of new drug of choice 4 (1%), drug stock-out 2 (0.5%) and others 22 (5.7%). There were no regimen substitutions due to treatment failure in the cohort. The median (IQR) duration of follow-up for patients who were LTFU was 9 months (5-18). At the end of the follow-up period, 65.5% (n = 1398) were actively being followed up and on ART, 7.5% (n = 159) had died and two individuals had reported discontinuing their medications. A total of 26.7% (n = 574) patients were defined as LTFU. The overall proportion of attrition due to both death and LTFU during the study period was 733 (34.4%) and the cumulative incidence (95% CIs) of attrition due to LTFU and death was 11.1 (10.4-11.9) per 1000 person-months. The cumulative incidence of LTFU (95% CIs) was 8.8 (8.1-9.6) per 1000 person-months. After people start ART, the retention rates are initially high and then gradually decline. The probability of retention (95% CIs) on ART at the 6 th , 12 th , and 24 th months after initiation of treatment was 92.0% (90.6-93.0), 82.3% (81.1-84.0) and 75.0% (73.2-77.01), respectively.
Figure 1: Number of Clients started ART by each year at Mizan-Aman General Hospital, Jan 07, 2005 to May 08, 2013.jpg

Click here to view
Table 1: Age-sex distribution and clinical characteristics of ART patients by age category at Mizan-Aman General Hospital, Jan 07, 2005 to May 08, 2013

Click here to view

Risk factors associated with LTFU after ART initiation

In a multivariate Cox regression model [Table 2], age category, regimen substitution, WHO clinical staging, CD4 cell count, non-isoniazid (INH) prophylaxis, and functional status were independent risk factors for LTFU [Figure 2]. Adolescent aged 11-19 years (HR 2.1; 95% CIs 1.3-3.4) and adults aged >20 yrs were at higher risk of LTFU (HR 1.4; 95% CIs 1.0-2.0) when compared to children aged ≤10 yrs. Men and women were at equal risk of LTFU [Figure 3]. The risk of LTFU in patients with WHO clinical stage III (HR 0.6; 95% CIs 0.44-0.9) and clinical stage IV (HR 0.8; 95% CIs 0.6-1.0) at entry were lower compared to clinical stage I.
Figure 2: Cumulative incidence of loss to follow up by functional status

Click here to view
Figure 3: Cumulative incidence of loss to follow up by gender

Click here to view
Table 2: Cox regression analysis of factors associated with LTFU HIV infected patients on ART therapy at Mizan-Aman General Hospital, January 2005 to May 2013

Click here to view

The risk of LTFU was higher in patients with baseline CD4 cell counts <200 cells/mm 3 (HR 1.7; 95% CIs 1.3-2.2) compared to baseline CD4 counts ≥200 cells/mm 3 . The risk of LTFU in patients who did not take INH prophylaxis was higher than those who did (HR 3.7; 95% CIs 2.3-6.1). Patients who made regimen substitutions during the follow-up period had a higher risk of LTFU (HR 5.2; 95% CIs 3.6-7.3). TB co-infection was not associated with LTFU.

  Discussion Top

Several studies have shown that LTFU poses challenges to the successful implementation of ART programs in LMICs. [1],[3] In this study, the incidence rate was estimated to be 8.8 per 1000 person-months. Other studies have shown that patients who discontinued ART developed a rapid increase in viral load and depletion of CD4 T lymphocytes, putting them at risk of opportunistic infections and early death. [25] Therefore, understanding the risk factors for LTFU is necessary to maintain adherence and intervene in groups of patients. In this analysis, it was estimated that the prevalence of LTFU from ART was 26.7%, higher than that reported in other African countries and the Oromia region of Ethiopia. [15],[26],[27],[28] However, ART clinics in the United Kingdom have reported a LTFU of 38.8%; of these, after intensive investigational activities for true outcomes, 51.7% were actually found to be LTFU, either those who were alive but had stopped their ARV or untraceable. [29] LTFU is not only an LMIC problem.

Consistent with our data, report from the British HIV Association 2008 [30] has shown that the risk of LTFU increases with decreasing CD4 counts at the entry point of ART, whereas in Switzerland there was an opposite trend in the risk of LTFU; patients with higher CD4 cell counts were more likely to be lost to follow-up. [26] The main reasons in rising incidence of LTFU have been ascribed to poor patient tracing in the low-income setting and due to lack of reporting the risk of death events that can be considered as LTFU. [1] Our study found that adolescents were twice, and adults 1.4 times, more likely to become lost to follow-up than children. A study from Uganda showed that the incidence of mortality was lower in children [31] ; this may suggest that the competing risk of death impacts on this age-group. Children may also be less exposed to stigma and discrimination (two common risks for LTFU) and the caretakers or parents are more likely to look after children that, reducing LTFU. During adolescence, a number of challenges have been identified that may compromise positive outcomes from HIV care. Adolescents may be particularly defiant, may not have caregivers (in contrast to younger children), may show immaturity in analytical thinking, and there may be particular challenges associated with puberty and high LTFU. Previous studies have also shown that adherence is lower in adolescents than adults. [13],[32],[33]

We detected no gender difference in LTFU, in contrast to several other studies that have shown that men are more likely to become lost to follow-up due to variation in mobility and a high risk of drug abuse in men, that may interfere with adherence. [17] Most men with drug addiction may experience higher toxicity due to interaction with ARV drugs that leads to discontinuation. [34] The detection of a difference in gender was compromised in this study due to cultural influences such as habit of chewing, alcohol consumption, religion, stigmas and lower mobility of the male population for inter-regional trade purpose in this particular study area. Patients with advanced clinical stage (III and IV) at entry were less likely to be lost to follow-up. This is in contrast to other African studies, which have shown the opposite. [35],[36] Our study suggested that clinical stage III and IV patients have increased health-seeking behavior, or it may be ascribed to improvements in awareness of community. Outside Africa, a Swiss study showed a statistically non-significant trend, [26] but a French study, similar to ours showed that a history of an AIDS-defining illness was associated with reduced LTFU. [37]

Patients who did not take INH prophylaxis were more likely to be lost to follow-up. Patients generally believe that if they are in the advanced stages of HIV/AIDS or considered immunocompromised, they should strictly maintain follow-up so that they can start prophylaxis and not be deemed unhealthy. Increase in reinforced counseling to patients taking INH prophylaxis might have contributed to better follow-up. TB is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV, including those on ART. However, we saw no significant association between LTFU status and TB co-infection. Patients who had substitutions in their regimen during the follow-up period were at higher risk of LTFU, similar to an Indian study that reported that substitution of drugs can be risk factor for ART default. [17] The majority of regimen substitution cases in this study were due to adverse drug reactions, so these patients may have become concerned about side effects and the effectiveness of new medication, causing them to seek other treatment options. Skin hypersensitivity reactions are common in patients taking nevirapine (NVP) containing ART regimens. Most patients report that they experience zidovudine (AZT)-induced anemia and stavudine (D4T) induced peripheral neuropathy. All these adverse effects commonly managed through efavirenz (EFZ) in NVP induced rash and tenofovir (TDF) or stavudine for zidovudine-induced anemia. [38] The fear of side-effects is known to be a major cause of default. [25] This subgroup of patients who lose faith in the medication program, irrespective of the reason for substitution, require special attention and frequent counseling in order to preserve retention in the ART program.

The probability of attrition from care was directly associated with the length of engagement with ART care. A higher proportion of LTFU was recorded in the first 6 months after ART initiation. Generally, the likelihood of dropping out from care gradually increases with longer retention period. The high risk factors for LTFU after initiation of ART were thought to be due to gaps in counseling services while refilling, assessment of ART outcomes by physicians, and tracing service by cell phones only. The main drawback of this service in this particular community assumed to be limited coverage of network and higher rate of cell phone non-users. This finding is consistent with many other studies, which reported that a large proportion of patients dropped-out from care within the first year of ART, the peak period being the first 6 months of ART. This has been suggested to be due to less awareness at these early time-points about treatment outcomes, whether adverse or beneficial.

Our study had some limitations that resulted from poor tracing of patients in the ART program's monitoring and evaluation system, patients who were LTFU may have died or self-referred to other facilities. Thus, the findings addressed crudely LTFU who might be dead, untraceable, self-transfer outs, and defaulters. The concerted influences of these factors may affect the accurate record keeping procedures in this clinic. Decreasing LTFU of patients through provision of tracking system is crucial for minimizing early mortality, complications of HIV, reducing viral transmission, and ensuring success of ART programs.

  Conclusion Top

We report a comparatively high rate of LTFU from an Ethiopian ART clinic. Low CD4 counts, adolescence, being in good health, regimen substitution, and advanced clinical stage were found to be risk factors for LTFU. Improving comprehensive counseling services, follow-up for adverse reactions and introducing an ART outcome evaluation program may help reduce LTFU to an acceptable level. Our results highlight the need to better understand the health-seeking behaviors of patients with ART and to implement strategies in HIV clinics for better tracking services and minimizing LTFU from HIV care. Change in way of tracing services like community education, scaling up of health extension services community wide, and increasing awareness by media may reduce LTFU. The lost to follow-up is of particular importance to ART programs because they potentially endanger not only their own life, but also contribute to increased HIV drug resistance due to ART default. [11],[12] Further studies that address the profiles of LTFU patients and the contributing factors are required for clarity.

  Abbreviations Top

AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; ART: Antiretroviral therapy; CIs: confidence intervals; HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; HR: hazard ratios; INH: Isoniazid; IQR: interquartile range; LMICs: Low- and middle-income countries; LTFU: loss to follow up; SD: standard deviations; TB: Tuberculosis; WHO: World Health Organization

  Acknowledgment Top

We acknowledge the kind assistance given by all the staff in the ART clinics. The authors also gratefully acknowledge editorial assistance from the Nextgenediting Global Initiative.

  References Top

1.WHO. Global update on HIV treatment: Results, impact and opportunities, 2013. (Accessed March 14, 2014 at: http://www.who.int/about/licensing/copyright_form/en/index.html).  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration. Life expectancy of individualson combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: A collaborative analysis of 14 cohort studies. Lancet 2008;372:293-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Wools-Kaloustian K, Kimaiyo S, Diero L, Siika A, Sidle J, Yiannoutsos CT, et al. Viability and effectiveness of large-scale HIV treatment initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa: Experience from western Kenya. AIDS 2006;20:41-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Hogg RS, Heath K, Bangsberg D, Yipa B, Press N, O'Shaughnessy MV, et al. Intermittent use of triple-combination therapy is predictive of mortality at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up. AIDS 2002;16:1051-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Kaplan JE, Hanson D, Dworkin MS, Frederick T, Bertolli J, Lindegren ML, et al. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus associated opportunistic infections in the United States in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2000;30:S5-14.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Low-Beer S, Yip B, O'Shaughnessy MV, Hogg RS, Montaner JS. Adherence to triple therapy and viral load response. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2000;23:360-1.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Taiwo B. Understanding transmitted HIV resistance through the experience in the USA. Int J Infect Dis 2009;13:552-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Dalal RP, Macphail C, Mqhayi M, Wing J, Feldman C, Chersich MF, et al. Characteristics and outcomes of adult patients lost to follow-up at an antiretroviral treatment clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008;47:101-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Brennan AT, Maskew M, Sanne I, Fox MP. The importance of clinic attendance in the first six months on antiretroviral treatment: A retrospective analysis at a large public sector HIV clinic in South Africa. J Int AIDS Soc 2010;13:49.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Bygrave H, Kranzer K, Hilderbrand K, Whittall J, Jouquet G, Goemaere E, et al. Trends in loss to follow-up among migrant workers on antiretroviral therapy in a community cohort in Lesotho. PLoS One 2010;5:e13198.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Adam BD, Maticka-Tyndale E, Cohen JJ. Adherence practices among people living with HIV. AIDS Care 2003;15:263-74.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Malcolm SE, Ng JJ, Rosen RK, Stone VE. An examination of HIV⁄AIDS patients who have excellent adherence to HAART. AIDS Care 2003;15:251-61.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Murphy DA, Sarr M, Durako SJ, Moscicki AB, Wilson CM, Muenz LR. Adolescent Medicine HIV/AIDS Research Network. Barriers to HAART adherence among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003;157:249-55.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Brinkhof MW, Pujades-Rodriguez M, Egger M. Mortality of patients lost to follow-up in antiretroviral treatment programmes in resource-limited settings: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 2009;4:e5790.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Fatti G, Meintjes G, Shea J, Eley B, Grimwood A. Improved survival and antiretroviral treatment outcomes in adults receiving community-based adherence support: 5-year results from a multicentre cohort study in South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2012;61:e50-8.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Amuron B, Namara G, Birungi J, Nabiryo C, Levin J, Grosskurth H, et al. Mortality and loss to- follow-up during the pre-treatment period in an antiretroviral therapy programme under normal health service conditions in Uganda. BMC Public Health 2009;9:290.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Alvarez-Uria G, Naik PK, Pakam R, Midde M. Factors associated with attrition, mortality, and loss to follow up after antiretroviral therapy initiation: Data from an HIV cohort study in India. Glob Health Action 2013;6:21682.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Lanoy E, Mary-Krause M, Tattevin P, Dray-Spira R, Duvivier C, Fischer P, et al. Clinical Epidemiology Group of French Hospital Database on HIV Infection. Predictors identified for losses to follow-up among HIV-sero positive patients. J Clin Epidemiol 2006;59:829-35.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Bagchi S. Telemedicine in rural India. PLoS Med 2006;3:e82.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Rosen S, Fox MP, Gill CJ. Patient retention in antiretroviral therapy programs in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review. PLoS Med 2007;4:e298.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Karcher H, Omondi A, Odera J, Kunz A, Harms G. Risk factors for treatment denial and loss to follow-up in an antiretroviral treatment cohort in Kenya. Trop Med Int Health 2007;12:687-94.  Back to cited text no. 21
22.Central Statistical Agency [Ethiopia] and ICF International: Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Calverton, Maryland, USA: Central Statistical Agency and ICF International, 2012. (Accessed February 25, 2014, at http://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1860/Demographic%20Health%20Survey%202011%20Ethiopia%20Final%20Report.pdf).  Back to cited text no. 22
23.Moshago T, Haile DB, Enqusilasie F. Survival analysis of HIV infected people on antiretroviral therapy at Mizan-Aman General Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Int J Sci Res 2014;3:1462-9.  Back to cited text no. 23
24.Bakand C, Birungi J, Mwesigwa R, Nachega J, Chan K, Palmer A, et al. Survival of HIV-infected adolescents on antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: Findings from a nationally representative cohort in Uganda. PLoS One 2011;6:e19261.  Back to cited text no. 24
25.Deribe K, Hailekiros F, Biadgilign S, Amberbir A, Beyene BK. Defaulters from antiretroviral treatment in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Trop Med Int Health 2008;13:328-33.  Back to cited text no. 25
26.Schoni-Affolter F, Keiser O, Mwango A, Stringer J, Ledergerber B, Mulenga L, et al. Swiss HIV Cohort Study, IeDEA Southern Africa. Estimating loss to follow-up in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy: The effect of the competing risk of death in Zambia and Switzerland. PLoS One 2011;6:e27919.  Back to cited text no. 26
27.Yu JK, Chen SC, Wang KY, Chang CS, Makombe SD, Schouten EJ, et al. True outcomes for patients on antiretroviral therapy who are ''lost to follow-up'' in Malawi. Bull World Health Organ 2007;85:550-4.  Back to cited text no. 27
28.Alemu AW, San Sebastian M. Determinants of survival in adult HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in Oromiyaa, Ethiopia. Glob Health Action 2010;3.  Back to cited text no. 28
29.Gerver SM, Chadborn TR, Ibrahim F, Vatsa B, Delpech VC, Easterbrook PJ. High rate of loss to clinical follow up among African HIV-infected patients attending a London clinic: A retrospective analysis of a clinical cohort. J Int AIDS Soc 2010;13:29.  Back to cited text no. 29
30.Mocroft A, Kirk O, Aldins P, Chies A, Blaxhult A, Chentsova N, et al. EuroSIDA study group. Loss to follow-up in an international, multicentre observational study. HIV Med 2008;9:261-9.  Back to cited text no. 30
31.Weidle PJ, Malamba S, Mwebaze R, Sozi C, Rukundo G, Downing R, et al. Assessment of a pilot antiretroviral drug therapy programme in Uganda: Patients' response, survival, and drug resistance. Lancet 2002;360:34-40.  Back to cited text no. 31
32.Wilson CM, Wright PF, Safrit JT, Rudy B. Epidemiology of HIV infection and risk in adolescents and youth. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010;54:S5-6.  Back to cited text no. 32
33.Murphy DA, Wilson CM, Durako SJ, Muenz LR, Belzer M. Adolescent medicine HIV/AIDS research network. Antiretroviral medication adherence among REACH HIV-infected adolescent cohort in the USA. AIDS Care 2001;13:27-40.  Back to cited text no. 33
34.Gordillo V, del Amo J, Soriano V, Gonzalez-Lahoz J. Socio demographic and psychological variables influencing adherence to antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 1999;13:1763-9.  Back to cited text no. 34
35.Brinkhof MW, Spycher BD, Yiannoutsos C, Weigel R, Wood R, Messou E, et al. Adjusting mortality for loss to follow-up: Analysis of five ART programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS One 2010;5:e14149.  Back to cited text no. 35
36.Geng EH, Glidden DV, Emenyonu N, Musinguzi N, Bwana MB, Neilands TB, et al. Tracking a sample of patients lost to follow-up has a major impact on understanding determinants of survival in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Africa. Trop Med Int Health 2010;15:63-9.  Back to cited text no. 36
37.Lebouche B, Yazdanpanah Y, Gerard Y, Sissoko D, Ajana F, Alcaraz I, et al. Incidence rate and risk factors for loss to follow-up in a French clinical cohort of HIV-infected patients from January 1985 to January 1998. HIV Med 2006;7:140-5.  Back to cited text no. 37
38.Ministry of Health (MOH) of Ethiopia: Guideline for implementation of antiretroviral therapy. Federal HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Office. Federal Ministry of Health, 2010. (Accessed March 25, 2014, at http://www.etharc.org/.../SPM%20II%20Final%20version%20sept%2026.pdf).  Back to cited text no. 38


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]

  [Table 1], [Table 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Cascade of care among hepatitis B patients in Maastricht, the Netherlands, 1996 to 2018
Eva van Oorschot, Özgür M. Koc, Astrid ML. Oude Lashof, Inge HM. van Loo, Robin Ackens, Dirk Posthouwer, Ger H. Koek
Journal of Virus Eradication. 2022; 8(2): 100075
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Time to lost to follow-up and its predictors among adult patients receiving antiretroviral therapy retrospective follow-up study Amhara Northwest Ethiopia
Animut Takele Telayneh, Mulugeta Tesfa, Wubetu Woyraw, Habtamu Temesgen, Nakachew Mekonnen Alamirew, Dessalegn Haile, Yilkal Tafere, Pammla Petrucka
Scientific Reports. 2022; 12(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Predictors of treatment interruption among patients on antiretroviral therapy in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria: outcomes after 12 months
Uduak Akpan, Kunle Kakanfo, Oche D. Ekele, Kufre Ukpong, Otoyo Toyo, Pius Nwaokoro, Ezekiel James, Satish Pandey, Kolawole Olatubosun, Moses Bateganya
AIDS Care. 2022; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Development and validation of a risk prediction model for lost to follow-up among adults on active antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia: a retrospective follow-up study
Dawit Tefera Fentie, Getahun Molla Kassa, Sofonyas Abebaw Tiruneh, Achenef Asmamaw Muche
BMC Infectious Diseases. 2022; 22(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Liberia adherence and loss-to-follow-up in HIV and AIDS care and treatment: A retrospective cohort of adolescents and adults from 2016–2019
Keith L. Gray, Murphy Kiazolu, Janjay Jones, Anna Konstantinova, Jethro S. W. Zawolo, Wahdae-Mai Harmon Gray, Naomi F. Walker, Julia T. Garbo, Samretta Caldwell, Michael Odo, Nahid Bhadelia, Jean DeMarco, Laura A. Skrip, Max Carlos Ramírez-Soto
PLOS Global Public Health. 2022; 2(3): e0000198
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Predictors of loss to follow-up from HIV antiretroviral therapy in Namibia
Steven Y. Hong, Anna Winston, Nicholus Mutenda, Ndapewa Hamunime, Tuhin Roy, Christine Wanke, Alice M. Tang, Michael R. Jordan, Tendesayi Kufa
PLOS ONE. 2022; 17(4): e0266438
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Incidence and factors associated with being lost to follow-up among people living with HIV and receiving antiretroviral therapy in Nyarugenge the central business district of Kigali city, Rwanda
Daniel Ntabanganyimana, Lawrence Rugema, Jared Omolo, Olivier Nsekuye, Samuel Sewava Malamba, Sirinya Teeraananchai
PLOS ONE. 2022; 17(10): e0275954
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Korelasi Stigma dengan Lost To-Follow Up pada Orang Dengan HIV dan AIDS
Gede Arya Bagus Arisudhana, Luh Putu Novi Artati
Journal Nursing Research Publication Media (NURSEPEDIA). 2022; 1(3): 152
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Time Until Loss to Follow-Up, Incidence, and Predictors Among Adults Taking ART at Public Hospitals in Southern Ethiopia
Samuel Dessu,Molalegn Mesele,Aklilu Habte,Zinabu Dawit
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care. 2021; Volume 13: 205
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Influence of Lost to Follow Up from Antiretroviral Therapy Among Retroviral Infected Patients at Tuberculosis Centers in Public Hospitals of Benishangul-Gumuz, Ethiopia
Girish Degavi
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care. 2021; Volume 13: 315
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Level of Attrition from Antiretroviral Therapy Among Human Immune Deficiency Virus-Infected Children: The Cases of Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia
Zemenu Sifr,Telto Ando,Wosenyeleh Semeon,Muse Rike,Kidist Ashami
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care. 2021; Volume 13: 813
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Risk Factors for TB/HIV Coinfection and Consequences for Patient Outcomes: Evidence from 241 Clinics in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Gulzar Hussain Shah,Raimi Ewetola,Gina Etheredge,Lievain Maluantesa,Kristie Waterfield,Elodie Engetele,Apolinaire Kilundu
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(10): 5165
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Does undernutrition increase the risk of lost to follow-up in adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa? Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis
Animut Alebel, Daniel Demant, Pammla Petrucka, David Sibbritt
BMJ Open. 2021; 11(12): e048022
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Predictors of Loss to Follow-Up among HIV-Infected Adults after Initiation of the First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy at Arba Minch General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia: A 5-Year Retrospective Cohort Study
Mathewos Alemu Gebremichael, Mekdes Kondale Gurara, Haymanot Nigussie Weldehawaryat, Melkamu Merid Mengesha, Dessalegn Ajema Berbada, Valeria Cavalcanti Rolla
BioMed Research International. 2021; 2021: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Predictors of lost to follow up from antiretroviral therapy among adults in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Hafte Kahsay Kebede,Lillian Mwanri,Paul Ward,Hailay Abrha Gesesew
Infectious Diseases of Poverty. 2021; 10(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 How does HIV testing modality impact the cascade of care among persons diagnosed with HIV in Ethiopia?
Malin Johansson,Clara Penno,Niclas Winqvist,Fregenet Tesfaye,Per Björkman
Global Health Action. 2021; 14(1): 1933788
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Failure to return pillbox is a predictor of being lost to follow-up among people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy in rural Tanzania
Robert C. Ndege, James Okuma, Aneth V. Kalinjuma, Julius Mkumbo, Elizabeth Senkoro, Gideon Fue, Leila Samson, Herry Mapesi, Siraji Shabani, Tracy R. Glass, Manuel Battegay, Daniel H. Paris, Fiona Vanobberghen, Maja Weisser, Aschola Asantiel, Farida Bani, Manuel Battegay, Theonestina Byakuzana, Adolphina Chale, Francisca Chuwa, Anna Eichenberger, Gideon Francis, Hansjakob Furrer, Tracy R. Glass, Speciosa Hwaya, Aneth V. Kalinjuma, Bryson Kasuga, Andrew Katende, Namvua Kimera, Bernard Kivuma, Yassin Kisunga, Olivia Kitau, Thomas Klimkait, Ezekiel Luoga, Herry Mapesi, Mengi Mkulila, Julius Mkumbo, Margareth Mkusa, Slyakus Mlembe, Dorcas K. Mnzava, Gertrud J. Mollel, Lilian Moshi, Germana Mossad, Dolores Mpundunga, Athumani Mtandanguo, Selerine Myeya, Sanula Nahota, Regina Ndaki, Robert C. Ndege, Agatha Ngulukila, Amina Nyuri, James Okuma, Daniel H. Paris, Aloyce Sambuta, Leila Samson, Elizabeth Senkoro, George Sikalengo, Jenifa Tarimo, Yvan Temba, Juerg Utzinger, Fiona Vanobberghen, John
HIV Medicine. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Impact of social accountability monitoring on health facility performance: Evidence from Tanzania
Igor Francetic,Günther Fink,Fabrizio Tediosi
Health Economics. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Baseline and Process Factors of Anti-Retroviral Therapy That Predict Loss to Follow-up Among People Living with HIV/AIDS in China: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Jinzhao Xie, Jing Gu, Xiuyuan Chen, Cong Liu, Haidan Zhong, Peishan Du, Quanmin Li, Joseph T. F. Lau, Chun Hao, Linghua Li, Yuantao Hao, Weiping Cai
AIDS and Behavior. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Prospective assessment of loss to follow-up: incidence and associated factors in a cohort of HIV-positive adults in rural Tanzania
Aneth V Kalinjuma,Tracy R Glass,Maja Weisser,Selarine J Myeya,Bryson Kasuga,Yassin Kisungæa,George Sikalengo,Andrew Katende,Manuel Battegay,Fiona Vanobberghen,Aschola Asantiel,Farida Bani,Manuel Battegay,Theonestina Byakuzana,Adolphina Chale,Anna Eichenberger,Sauli J Epimack,Gideon Francis,Hansjakob Furrer,Anna Gamell,Tracy R Glass,Speciosa Hwaya,Bryson Kasuga,Namvua Kimera,Andrew Katende,Yassin Kisunga,Aneth V Kalinjuma,Thomas Klimkait,Emilio Letang,Ezekiel Luoga,Lameck B Luwanda,Herry Mapesi,Ngisi P Masawa,Mengi Mkulila,Julius Mkumbo,Margareth Mkusa,Dorcas K Mnzava,Gertrud J Mollel,Germana Mossad,Lilian Moshi,Dolores Mpundunga,Athumani Mtandanguo,Selerine Myeya,Sanula Nahota,Regina Ndaki,Robert C Ndege,Agatha Ngulukila,Alex J Ntamatungiro,Amina Nyuri,Daniel H Paris,Omary N Rajab,Leila Samson,George Sikalengo,Fiona Vanobberghen,Maja Weisser,John Wigay
Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2020; 23(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Incidence and predictors of loss to follow-up among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adult patients on anti-retroviral therapy at Hadiya zone public hospitals, southern Ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study
Belachew Bikoro,Lemessa Oljira,Tesfaye Gobena,Desta Erkalo
Journal of Public Health. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage at public and private ART facilities in Myanmar
Thet Wai Nwe,Sung-Jae Lee,Li Li,May Thu Aung Hsan,Aung Thu Htwe,Htun Nyunt Oo,Roger Detels
AIDS Care. 2020; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Lost to follow-up: a challenge over 10 years
Mariacristina Poliseno,Davide Fiore Bavaro,Francesco Di Gennaro,Giuseppina De Vita,Enrico Girardi,Annalisa Saracino,Laura Monno,Gioacchino Angarano,Sergio Lo Caputo
AIDS Care. 2020; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Policy and practice suggestions to improve performance on the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets: Results from a nominal group technique with HIV experts in Southwest Ethiopia
Hailay Abrha Gesesew,Paul Ward,Kifle Woldemichael,Pamela Lyon,Lillian Mwanri
Health Expectations. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Incidence and predictors of loss to follow-up among HIV-positive adults in northwest Ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study
Molla Yigzaw Birhanu,Cheru Tesema Leshargie,Animut Alebel,Fasil Wagnew,Melkamu Siferih,Tsige Gebre,Getiye Dejenu Kibret
Tropical Medicine and Health. 2020; 48(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 HIV patients retention and attrition in care and their determinants in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Nurilign Abebe Moges,Adesina Olubukola,Okunlola Micheal,Yemane Berhane
BMC Infectious Diseases. 2020; 20(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Competing risk of mortality on loss to follow-up outcome among patients with HIV on ART: a retrospective cohort study from the Zimbabwe national ART programme
Zvifadzo Matsena Zingoni,Tobias Chirwa,Jim Todd,Eustasius Musenge
BMJ Open. 2020; 10(10): e036136
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Incidence and predictors of loss to follow up among adult HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital: A competing risk regression modeling
Achamyeleh Birhanu Teshale,Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye,Haileab Fekadu Wolde,Matt A Price
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(1): e0227473
[Pubmed] | [DOI]

Incidence of Loss to Follow-Up and Its Predictors Among Children with HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Referral Hospital: A Retrospective Data Analysis

Selam Fisiha Kassa,Workie Zemene Worku,Kendalem Asmare Atalell,Chilot Desta Agegnehu
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care. 2020; Volume 12: 525
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Economic and public health impact of decentralized HIV viral load testing: A modelling study in Kenya
M. de Necker,J. C. de Beer,M. P. Stander,C. D. Connell,D. Mwai,David P Wilson
PLOS ONE. 2019; 14(2): e0212972
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Incidence and risk factors of loss to follow-up among HIV-infected children in an antiretroviral treatment program
Suttipong Kawilapat,Nicolas Salvadori,Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong,Luc Decker,Suparat Kanjanavanit,Achara Puangsombat,Kanchana Preedisripipat,Narong Lertpienthum,Noppadon Akarathum,Jutarat Mekmullica,Ussanee Srirompotong,Marc Lallemant,Sophie Le Coeur,Patrinee Traisathit,Charline Leroi,Gonzague Jourdain,Graciela Andrei
PLOS ONE. 2019; 14(9): e0222082
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Effect of Macrolide Prophylactic Therapy on AIDS-Defining Conditions and HIV-Associated Mortality
Mark Kristoffer U. Pasayan,Mary Lorraine S. Mationg,David Boettiger,Wilson Lam,Fujie Zhang,Stephane Wen-Wei Ku,Tuti Parwati Merati,Romanee Chaiwarith,Do Duy Cuong,Evy Yunihastuti,Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul,Nguyen Van Kinh,Anchalee Avihingsanon,Ly Penh Sun,Adeeba Kamarulzaman,Pacharee Kantipong,Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy,Sanjay Pujari,Benedict Lim Heng Sim,Oon Tek Ng,Jun Yong Choi,Junko Tanuma,Jeremy Ross,Rossana A. Ditangco
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2019; 80(4): 436
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Incidence and predictors of LTFU among adults with TB/HIV co-infection in two governmental hospitals, Mekelle, Ethiopia, 2009–2016: survival model approach
Kebede Embaye Gezae,Haftom Temesgen Abebe,Letekirstos Gebreegziabher Gebretsadik
BMC Infectious Diseases. 2019; 19(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Social barriers in accessing care by clients who returned to HIV care after transient loss to follow-up
Babatunde Adelekan,Nifarta Andrew,Iboro Nta,Asabe Gomwalk,Nicaise Ndembi,Charles Mensah,Patrick Dakum,Ahmad Aliyu
AIDS Research and Therapy. 2019; 16(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Incidence and predictors of loss to follow-up among HIV infected adults after initiation of first line anti-retroviral therapy at University of Gondar comprehensive specialized Hospital Northwest Ethiopia, 2018: retrospective follow up study
Nebiyu Mekonnen,Mohamed Abdulkadir,Eleyias Shumetie,Adhanom Gebreegziabher Baraki,Melaku Kindie Yenit
BMC Research Notes. 2019; 12(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Predictors associated with HIV/AIDS patients dropout from antiretroviral therapy at Mettu Karl Hospital, southwest Ethiopia
Melaku Tadege
BMC Research Notes. 2019; 12(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Reasons and predictors for antiretroviral therapy change among HIV-infected adults at South West Ethiopia
Endalkachew Mekonnen,Abdulhalik Workicho,Nezif Hussein,Teka Feyera
BMC Research Notes. 2018; 11(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Body and mind: retention in antiretroviral treatment care is improved by mental health training of care providers in Ethiopia
Tezera Moshago Berheto,Sven Gudmund Hinderaker,Mbazi Senkoro,Hannock Tweya,Tekalign Deressa,Yimam Getaneh,Gulilat Gezahegn
BMC Public Health. 2018; 18(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 Loss to follow-up and mortality among HIV-infected adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy in Pune, India
S Nimkar,C Valvi,D Kadam,BB Rewari,A Kinikar,N Gupte,N Suryavanshi,A Deluca,A Shankar,J Golub,R Bollinger,A Gupta,I Marbaniang,V Mave
HIV Medicine. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Prevalence of drug-resistant mutation among drug-treated HIV/AIDS inpatient in Airlangga University teaching hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia
B E Rachman,S Q Khairunisa,A M Witaningrum,M Q Yunifiar,P Widiyanti,P Nasronudin
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2018; 125: 012003
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Does sex matter? A matched pairs analysis of neuromodulation outcomes in women and men
Laura N. Nguyen,Jamie Bartley,Kim A. Killinger,Priyanka Gupta,John Lavin,Ayad Khourdaji,Jason Gilleran,Natalie Gaines,Judith A. Boura,Kenneth M. Peters
International Urology and Nephrology. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Predictors of Mortality among Patients Lost to Follow up Antiretroviral Therapy
Putu Dian Prima Kusuma Dewi,Gede Budi Widiarta
Jurnal Ners. 2018; 13(1): 114
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Loss to follow-up before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV facilities in Lilongwe, Malawi
Hannock Tweya,Ikwo Kitefre Oboho,Salem T. Gugsa,Sam Phiri,Ethel Rambiki,Rebecca Banda,Johnbosco Mwafilaso,Chimango Munthali,Sundeep Gupta,Moses Bateganya,Alice Maida,Eduard J. Beck
PLOS ONE. 2018; 13(1): e0188488
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Attrition when providing antiretroviral treatment at CD4 counts >500cells/µL at three government clinics included in the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial in South Africa
Peter Bock,Geoffrey Fatti,Nathan Ford,Karen Jennings,James Kruger,Colette Gunst,Françoise Louis,Nelis Grobbelaar,Kwame Shanaube,Sian Floyd,Ashraf Grimwood,Richard Hayes,Helen Ayles,Sarah Fidler,Nulda Beyers,Jason F Okulicz
PLOS ONE. 2018; 13(4): e0195127
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 Time to development of adverse drug reactions and associated factors among adult HIV positive patients on antiretroviral treatment in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia
Etsegenet Kindie,Zelalem Alamrew Anteneh,Endalkachew Worku,Giovanni Maga
PLOS ONE. 2017; 12(12): e0189322
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Discontinuation from Antiretroviral Therapy: A Continuing Challenge among Adults in HIV Care in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Hailay Abrha Gesesew,Paul Ward,Kifle Woldemichael Hajito,Garumma Tolu Feyissa,Leila Mohammadi,Lillian Mwanri,Matt A Price
PLOS ONE. 2017; 12(1): e0169651
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Disclosure of HIV status and its impact on the loss in the follow-up of HIV-infected patients on potent anti-retroviral therapy programs in a (post-) conflict setting: A retrospective cohort study from Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo
Pierre Zalagile Akilimali,Patou Masika Musumari,Espérance Kashala-Abotnes,Patrick Kalambayi Kayembe,François B. Lepira,Paulin Beya Mutombo,Thorkild Tylleskar,Mapatano Mala Ali,Eric Brian Faragher
PLOS ONE. 2017; 12(2): e0171407
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Prevalence, trend and risk factors for antiretroviral therapy discontinuation among HIV-infected adults in Ethiopia in 2003-2015
Hailay Abrha Gesesew,Paul Ward,Kifle Woldemichael,Lillian Mwanri,Giovanni Maga
PLOS ONE. 2017; 12(6): e0179533
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Health care needs assessment among adolescents in correctional institutions in Zambia: an ethical analysis
Maureen Kumwenda,Selestine Nzala,Joseph M. Zulu
BMC Health Services Research. 2017; 17(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 Feasibility of antiretroviral treatment monitoring in the era of decentralized HIV care: a systematic review
Minh D. Pham,Lorena Romero,Bruce Parnell,David A. Anderson,Suzanne M. Crowe,Stanley Luchters
AIDS Research and Therapy. 2017; 14(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 Factors associated with discontinuation of anti-retroviral therapy among adults living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia: a systematic review protocol
Hailay A Gesesew,Lillian Mwanri,Paul Ward,Kifle Woldemicahel,Garumma T Feyissa
JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports. 2016; 14(2): 26
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 Retention in Care among HIV-Infected Adults in Ethiopia, 2005– 2011: A Mixed-Methods Study
Yordanos M. Tiruneh,Omar Galárraga,Becky Genberg,Ira B. Wilson,Claire Thorne
PLOS ONE. 2016; 11(6): e0156619
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Retention in care among HIV-positive patients initiating second-line antiretroviral therapy: a retrospective study from an Ethiopian public hospital clinic
Sten Wilhelmson,Anton Reepalu,Taye Tolera Balcha,Godana Jarso,Per Björkman
Global Health Action. 2016; 9(1): 29943
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 Results from a rapid national assessment of services for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Côte dæIvoire
S Adam Granato,Stephen Gloyd,Julia Robinson,Serge A Dali,Irma Ahoba,David Aka,Seydou Kouyaté,Doroux A Billy,Samuel Kalibala,Ahoua Koné
Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2016; 19: 20838
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 Lessons learned and study results from HIVCore, an HIV implementation science initiative
Naomi Rutenberg,Waimar Tun
Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2016; 19: 21261
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 Factors Associated with Retention to Care in an HIV Clinic in Gabon, Central Africa
Saskia Janssen,Rosanne Willemijn Wieten,Sebastiaan Stolp,Anne Lia Cremers,Elie Gide Rossatanga,Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch,Sabine Belard,Martin Peter Grobusch,Linda Anne Selvey
PLOS ONE. 2015; 10(10): e0140746
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 Initiation of antiretroviral therapy at high CD4+ cell counts is associated with positive treatment outcomes
Viviane D. Lima,Anja Reuter,P. Richard Harrigan,Lillian Lourenço,William Chau,Mark Hull,Lauren Mackenzie,Silvia Guillemi,Robert S. Hogg,Rolando Barrios,Julio S.G. Montaner
AIDS. 2015; 29(14): 1871
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 Predictors of dropout from care among HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy at a public sector HIV treatment clinic in sub-Saharan Africa
Stephen B. Asiimwe,Michael Kanyesigye,Bosco Bwana,Samson Okello,Winnie Muyindike
BMC Infectious Diseases. 2015; 16(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Materials and Me...
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded1035    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 58    

Recommend this journal