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   2010| October  | Volume 2 | Issue 10  
    Online since November 9, 2011

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The multi-systemic nature of diabetes mellitus: Genotype or phenotype?
Graham Wilfred Ewing, Syed Hasan Parvez
October 2010, 2(10):444-456
Background: This article discusses factors which materially influence the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus but which may be overlooked by the prevailing biomedical paradigm. That cognition can be mathematically linked to the function of the autonomic nervous system and physiological systems casts new light upon the mechanisms responsible for homeostasis and origins of disease. In particular, it highlights the limitations of the reductionist biomedical approach which considers mainly the biochemistry of single pathologies rather than considering the neural mechanisms which regulate the function of physiological systems, and inherent visceral organs; and which are subsequently manifest as biochemistries of varying degrees of complexity and severity. As a consequence, histopathological tests are fraught with inherent limitations and many categories of drugs are significantly ineffective. Aims: Such limitations may be explained if disease (in particular diabetes mellitus) has multiple origins, is multi-systemic in nature and, depending upon the characteristics of each pathology, is influenced by genotype and/or phenotype. Results:This article highlights the influence of factors which are not yet considered re. the aetiology of diabetes mellitus e.g. the influence of light and sensory input upon the stability of the autonomic nervous system; the influence of raised plasma viscosity upon rates of reaction; the influence of viruses and/or of modified live viruses given in vaccinations; systemic instability, in particular the adverse influence of drinks and lack of exercise upon the body's prevailing pH and its subsequent influence upon levels of magnesium and other essential trace elements. Conclusions: This application of the top-down systems biology approach may provide a plausible and inclusive explanation for the nature and occurrence of diabetes mellitus.
  6,274 329 -
Hemoglobin level as a risk factor for lower respiratory tract infections in Lebanese children
Sawsan Mourad, Mariam Rajab, Aouni Alameddine, Mohammad Fares, Fouad Ziade, Bassem Abou Merhi
October 2010, 2(10):461-466
Background: Pneumonia is the biggest single cause of childhood death under the age of 5 years, and anemia affects approximately 30% of infants and children all over the world. Aim: Determination of the relationship between anemia and lower respiratory tract infection as a risk factor in Lebanese children. Patients and Methods A total number of two hundred infants and children aged nine months to twelve years were included; One hundred cases were hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection in Department of Pediatrics, Makassed General Hospital, and one hundred healthy, age and sex matched controls, were selected from outpatient department. Complete blood count, iron level, ferritin level, and total iron binding capacity were taken if hemoglobin level less than eleven gram per deci-liter. In addition peripheral blood smear, chest radiograph and C-reactive protein were done to hospitalized cases. Definition of iron deficiency anemia and normal laboratory values were predetermined. Results: Anemia was found in 32% of hospitalized cases and 16% of healthy controls. Mean hemoglobin level was 9.99 ΁ 0.62 gram per deci-liter and 11.99 ΁ 0.92 gram per deci-liter in anemic and non-anemic group respectively with a significant P-value of 0.001. C-reactive protein levels and number hospitalization days were similar among the anemic and non-anemic group. History of recurrent chest infections was significantly higher in both anemic group and hospitalized cases compared to non-anemic group and healthy controls. Low hemoglobin level was a risk factor for lower respiratory tract infection with a P-value of 0.008. Conclusion: Anemic children were two times more susceptible to lower respiratory tract infection compared to the control group, and iron deficiency anemia was predominating. Accurate diagnosis and prevention of anemia, whatever its etiology, is essential.
  2,073 355 -
Pap smear screening in the primary health care setting: A study from Turkey
Hande Celik Mehmetoglu, Ganime Sadikoglu, Alis Ozcakir, Nazan Bilgel
October 2010, 2(10):467-472
Background: Cervical cancer is one of the ten most frequent cancers in Turkey. It is well known that cervical cancer morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced with an active cervical smear screening (Pap smear) program. Aims: The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of women about cervical smear testing; 2) to establish a cervical smear screening program and to evaluate the cervical cytological abnormalities that were found; 3) to determine the applicability, limitations and effectiveness of this screening in a primary health care unit. Patients and Methods : A total of 332 married women were included in our study. We collected data concerning socio-demographic and fertility characteristics, and knowledge about Pap smear testing was determined through printed questionnaires. A gynecological examination and Pap smear screening was performed on every woman in our study group. Results: Over ninety percent of our study group had never heard of and had not undergone Pap smear screening before. Of the 332 smears evaluated, 328 (98.8%) were accepted as normal, whereas epithelial cell anomalies were seen in 4 (1.2%), infection in 59 (17.7%), and reactive cell differences in 223 (67.2%) of the smears. Conclusions: The frequency of epithelial cell anomalies in our study group was less than the frequencies reported from Western countries. Knowledge regarding cervical cancer and Pap smear screening was very low. Pap smears can be easily taken and evaluated through a chain built between the primary health care unit and laboratory, and this kind of screening intervention is easily accepted by the population served.
  1,911 223 -
Gallbladder neurofibroma presenting as chronic epigastric pain - Case report and review of the literature
Iswanto Sucandy, Devesh Sharma, Gregory Dalencourt, David J Bertsch
October 2010, 2(10):496-468
Context: Benign nonepithelial neoplasms of the gallbladder are unusual. The majority of gallbladder neurofibromas are found incidentally in the gallbladder specimens following cholecystectomy. There have been only few reports in the literature describing this rare entity. In this study we report a case of gallbladder neurofibroma presenting as chronic epigastric pain in a young patient. Case Report: A thirty two year old otherwise healthy man presented to our clinic with chronic epigastric pain symptom after eating. Physical examination, laboratory and radiologic workups were unremarkable for signs of biliary tract diseases. Past medical and surgical histories were significant only for neurofibromatosis type I. Due to persistent symptomatology, the patient was taken to the operating room for a diagnostic laparoscopy followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Open conversion was necessitated because of the presence of a gallbladder mass preventing safe anatomic dissection. Surgical pathology revealed plexiform neurofibroma with noninflamed gallbladder. The postoperative course was unremarkable and the patient was pain free at 3 weeks postoperatively. Conclusions: Benign neoplasms such as gallbladder neurofibroma should be included in the differential diagnosis for chronic epigastric pain symptom in a young otherwise healthy patient with neurofibromatosis. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be considered in an individual presenting with this condition.
  1,828 194 -
Perception, attitude and practices of women towards pelvic examination and Pap smear in Jamaica
Paul A Bourne, Christopher A.D. Charles, Cynthia G Francis, Neva South-Bourne, Racquel Peters
October 2010, 2(10):478-486
Background : Studies have shown that women's ability to access contraceptive methods depend on their socio-economic, educational, professional status, and the health and well-being of their families and themselves. Therefore, the embarking of the Governments of the Caribbean on important initiatives relating to gynecological matters is very important and timely. Aims : This study aims to examine the perception, attitude and practice of Jamaican women towards the matter of pelvic examination. Patients and Methods : The current study used an extracted sample of 7,168 women in their reproductive years (15-49 yrs) from a study which was undertaken by the National Family Planning Board in 2002 on Reproductive Health. Data was analyzed using SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0 (SPSS Inc.; Chicago, Ill. USA). Logistic regression was used to analyze factors/variables pertaining to Pelvic examination. Results: The findings revealed that older women are more likely to have done a Pelvic examination compared to younger women (χ2 = 675.29, P < 0.001). Age, number of pregnancies that resulted in miscarriages, number of pregnancies that resulted in induced abortion, age of first sexual intercourse, number of years of schooling, area of residence and socio-economic class are statistically significant factors of Pelvic examinations in Jamaica. Therefore, the model had significant predictive power where (χ2 = 1022.79, P < 0.001). Conclusion : The multidimensional nature of the variables, which emerged in the current study, indicate that a multisectoral approach should be used to address low pelvic and Pap smear examination among Jamaican women.
  1,709 232 -
Recrudescent herpes labialis mimicking primary herpes labialis in pregnancy
Shaveta Sood, Aneet Mahendra, Sanjeev Gupta, Shalu Chandna, Sarabjit Kaur
October 2010, 2(10):499-501
Context: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is prevalent worldwide. Herpes labialis is caused predominantly by HSV-1, and herpes vulvo-vaginitis is caused predominantly by HSV-2. HSV-2 may result in significant morbidity and mortality for infected neonates exposed during delivery .Due to this fact, a large amount of literature exists for HSV-2 but data for HSV -1 is scanty. Case Report : We report two cases of recrudescent herpes labialis in 3 rd trimester of pregnancy with extensive peri-oral lesions resembling primary herpes labialis. There was no obvious cause of immunosupression. The patients were followed up with a normal outcome of pregnancy and no fetal abnormality. Conclusions : The reasons for such extensive perioral lesions are uncertain. Immunosupression of pregnancy may be a factor in a sub group of patients.
  1,619 205 -
Protective effect of Livactine against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in adult Wistar rats
Candasamy Mayuren., Vudumula Varun Reddy, Srikakulam Vishnu Priya., Vallampatla Anusha Devi.
October 2010, 2(10):491-495
Background : Liver disease has become one of the serious health problems as it is exposed to many kinds of xenobiotics and therapeutic agents. Moreover the rapidly growing morbidity and mortality from liver disease are attributable to the increasing number of chemical compounds and environmental pollution. Unfortunately, so far, in the modern era of medicine there is no specific treatment to counter the menacing impact of these dreaded diseases. Many polyherbal formulations are used widely to treat these disorders. Livactine is a polyherbal formulation and is claimed to be useful in jaundice and biliary dysfunctions. Most of these formulations do not have standard and approved reports stating their pharmacological action or therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, there is a need for experimental confirmation of the pharmacological effects of this formulation. The rationale behind the selection of carbon tetrachloride is due to its free radical mechanism based liver injury, and paracetamol is consumed widely by the human population and it is also a potential liver hazard. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hepatotoxic activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Albino rats of Wistar strain were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity. Liver damage was assessed by estimating various biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, total bilirubin, and total protein. The results of the rats treated with Livactine were compared with that of Liv-52. Results: Livactine showed significant dose dependent hepatoprotective effect by reducing elevated serum enzyme levels when compared to that of Liv-52. Conclusion: Our findings confirm that the formulation was found to be effective pharmacologically at higher dose against carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxic models and were comparable to that of Liv-52.The resultant hepatoprotective activity of Livactine could be due to its free radical scavenging property of the ingredients.
  1,561 208 -
Is pseudoexfoliation syndrome associated with coronary artery disease?
Mehmet Yunus Emiroglu, Erol Coskun, Hekim Karapinar, Musa Capkin, Zekeriya Kaya, Hasan Kaya, Mustafa Akcakoyun, Ramazan Kargin, Zeki Simsek, Göksel Acar, Soe Moe Aung, Selcuk Pala, Burak Özdemir, Ali Metin Esen, Cevat Kirma
October 2010, 2(10):487-490
Background: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is recognised by chronic deposition of abnormal pseudoexfoliation material on anterior segment structures of the eye, especially the anterior lens capsule. In recent years, several studies have shown the presence of vascular, cardiac and other organ pseudoexfoliative material in patients with ocular pseudoexfoliation. Aims : The purpose of this study is to determine whether an association exists between ocular pseudoexfoliation and coronary artery disease, aortic aneurysms and peripheric vascular disease. Patients and Methods: 490 patients who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) at Kosuyolu Cardiovascula Research and Training Hospital were included in the study. Patients were evaluated for conventional risk factors such as age, sex, family history, hypertension, diabetes, dislipidemia and smoking. Detailed eye examinations including evaluation of lens were done in all patients. The presence of PEX material in the anterior segment was best appreciated by slit lamp after pupillary dilation. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of PEX, and compared for the presence of CAD and other risk factors. Results: CAD was present in 387 patients. 103 patients had normal coronary angiography. 20 (5.2 %) of CAD patients and 4 (3.9%) of normal CAG patients were found to have PEX (p>0.05). There was no significant relationship between CAD and the presence of PEX (p>0.05). When patients were grouped according to the presence of PEX, only age was significantly different between the two groups (r: 0.25, p<0.001). Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between the presence of PEX and CAD. Further studies in larger scales with elderly population may be more valuable.
  1,527 240 -
Prevalence and etiologic agents of female reproductive tract infection among in-patients and out-patients of a tertiary hospital in Benin city, Nigeria
Richard Omoregie, Christopher Aye Egbe, Isaac Ohiorenuan Igbarumah, Helen Ogefere, Evelyn Okorie
October 2010, 2(10):473-477
Background: Reproductive tract infections are public health problems in women of reproductive age and can result in serious consequences if not treated. Aims: To determine the prevalence and causes of reproductive tract infections among in-patients and out-patients attending a tertiary health institution in Benin City. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of bacterial agents will also be determined. Patients and methods: High vaginal swabs or endocervical swabs and blood were collected from 957 patients consisting of 755 out-patients and 202 in-patients. The swabs were processed and microbial isolates identified using standard technique. Disc susceptibility tests were also performed on microbial isolates. The blood samples were used for serological diagnosis of syphilis. Results: There was no significant difference in the prevalence of female reproductive tract infections between in-patients (52.48%) and out-patients (47.02%), although in-patients showed a significantly higher risk of developing mixed infections (in-patients vs. out-patients; 34.91% vs. 22.25%, OR = 1.873 95% CI = 1.169, 3.001; P = 0.01). Candida albicans was the most prevalent etiologic agent among out-patients studied while Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent etiologic agent among in-patients. Trichomonas vaginalis was observed only among out-patients. Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were the most active antibacterial agents. Syphilis was not detected in any patient. Conclusion: An overall prevalence of 48.17% of female reproductive tract infection was observed among the study population. Although there was no significant difference between in-patients and out-patients, in-patients appeared to have 1-3-fold increase risk of developing mixed infections. The most prevalent etiologic agent differs between in-patients and out-patients. Despite the high activity of ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin against bacterial isolates from both in-patients and out-patients, prudent use of antibacterial agents is advocated.
  1,440 201 -
Whole blood viscosity issues VI: Association with blood salicylate level and gastrointestinal bleeding
Ezekiel Uba Nwose, Nathan Cann
October 2010, 2(10):457-460
Background : This series on whole blood viscosity issues has been trying to elucidate the sensitivity, specificity and usefulness of the laboratory parameter in clinical practice. The postulation has been that since antiplatelet is used in the management of stasis, of which blood viscosity is an index, the latter would be useful laboratory indication and/or contraindication. Aim : The aim of this study was to observe whether blood level of acetylsalicylic acid differs with the level of whole blood viscosity. Patients and Methods : Out of the ten years database, 538 cases that were concomitantly tested for haematocrit, total proteins and blood level of salicylate were selected for this study. A separate nine cases of positive faecal occult blood tests were audited for blood viscosity and reviewed. Results : A statistically significant difference is observed with lower blood viscosity being associated with higher salicylate level in comparison of the former between the highest vs. lowest quartiles (p < 0.002). This observation demonstrates the effect of aspirin in lowering blood stasis. Reviewing the positive faecal occult blood cases indicate that gastrointestinal bleeding is characterized by relative hypoviscosity and that hyperviscosity is not present during bleeding complications. Conclusion : The findings affirm that whole blood viscosity is a valid clinical laboratory parameter for evidence-based contraindication, indication and monitoring of antiplatelet medication. It calls for better appreciation and clinical utility of whole blood viscosity, which (in the absence of viscometer) can now be extrapolated from haematocrit and total proteins.
  1,338 197 -