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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2011| January  | Volume 3 | Issue 1  
    Online since November 9, 2011

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A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria
Favour Osazuwa, Oguntade Michael Ayo, Paul Imade
January 2011, 3(1):30-34
DOI:10.4297/najms.2011.330  PMID:22540060
Background : Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods : Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results : Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%), hookworm (16.19%) and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%). Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001). Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion : Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.
  32 3,504 545
Mindfulness-based stress reduction: A non-pharmacological approach for chronic illnesses
Asfandyar Khan Niazi, Shaharyar Khan Niazi
January 2011, 3(1):20-23
DOI:10.4297/najms.2011.320  PMID:22540058
Background: Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) therapy is a meditation therapy, though originally designed for stress management, it is being used for treating a variety of illnesses such as depression, anxiety, chronic pain, cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, skin and immune disorders. Aim: The aim of this systematic review is to determine the efficacy of MBSR in the treatment of chronic illnesses; it's mechanism of action and adverse effects. It describes an alternative method of treatment for physicians and patients that may help patients cope with their diseases in a more effective way. Materials and Methods: COCHRANE, EMBASE and MEDLINE were systematically searched for data on outcome of treatment with MBSR used alone or in conjunction with other treatments. The data available on prevention of diseases through MBSR was also analyzed. Results: All the 18 studies included in this systematic review showed improvement in the condition of patients after MBSR therapy. These studies were focused on patients with chronic diseases like cancer, hypertension, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, chronic pain and skin disorders, before and after MBSR therapy. Conclusions: Although the research on MBSR is sparse, the results of these researches indicate that MBSR improves the condition of patients suffering from chronic illnesses and helps them cope with a wide variety of clinical problems.
  30 6,642 1,238
Pancreatic cancer: chemotherapy and radiotherapy
Ĺke Andrén-Sandberg
January 2011, 3(1):1-12
DOI:10.4297/najms.2011.31  PMID:22540056
Pancreatic cancer in many cases appears in a non-curatively resectable stage when the diagnosis is made. Palliative treatment become an option in the patients with advanced stage. The present article reviewed chemotherapy and radiotherapy in various advanced stage of pancreatic cancer.
  13 1,022 151
Comparative effects of Rauwolfia vomitoria and chlorpromazine on social behaviour and pain
Sunday Bisong, Richard Brown, Eme Osim
January 2011, 3(1):48-54
DOI:10.4297/najms.2011.348  PMID:22540065
Background : Rauwolfia vomitoria has been used in Nigeria to manage psychiatric disorders despite orthodox medicine. Aims : This research was therefore aimed at comparing the effects of R. vomitoria, chlorpromazine and reserpine on social behaviour and pain in mice. Materials and Methods : Ninety male CD-1 mice (32 - 38g body weight) were grouped into 3 with 5 subgroups (n=6) each. Mice were given chlorpromazine (0.0, 0.25, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 mg/kg i.p.), 30 minutes before testing and R. vomitoria (0.0, 0.25, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and reserpine (0.0, 0.1, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 mg/kg, i.p) 24 hours before testing. Nesting score assessed social behaviour while the tail flick and hot plate analgesiometers assessed pain. Results : Chlorpromazine dose-dependently decreased nesting score (F 4,25 = 5.5660; p< 0.01), indicating decreased social behaviour (social loss) in the mice. Although R. vomitoria did not affect nesting score, reserpine decreased the nesting score (social loss). In the pain test, chlorpromazine did not alter tail flick latency but decreased hind paw lick latency in the hot plate at 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg (p< 0.01), indicating increased pain sensitivity at these doses which may indirectly increase social withdrawal and thus aggravating depression. R. vomitoria however, increased tail flick and hind paw lick latencies in the hot plate test (p< 0.05) indicating decreased pain sensitivity. Reserpine, like R. vomitoria, increased latency of hind paw lick in the hot plate. Conclusion : R. vomitoria has a high potential as an antipsychotic and may have advantage over chlorpromazine; it is not necessary to isolate active components from this herb.
  11 2,328 329
Natural products and body weight control
Jay Lee, Yanmei Li, Chunhua Li, Duo Li
January 2011, 3(1):13-19
DOI:10.4297/najms.2011.313  PMID:22540057
The purpose of the review was to summarise the effect of some commonly available natural products used for body weight management. We collected data from PubMed and scientific journals. There are numerous publications on this topic, however we have summarized the most commonly available and potent natural products from recent 53 publications. The natural products analyzed in this paper include catechins, capsaicin, conjugated linoleic acid, fucoxanthin, soy isoflavone, glabridin, astaxanthin and cyaniding-3-glucoside. These natural products are effective and safe for body weight management. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the mechanism of action, metabolism, long term safety and side effects of these natural products, as well as interactions between these natural products with dietary components.
  8 2,826 465
Radiotherapy on hidradenocarcinoma
Issam Lalya, Khalid Hadadi, El Mehdi Tazi, Ilham Lalya, Amine Bazine, Khalid Andaloussy, Mohamed Elmarjany, Hassan Sifat, Khalid Hassouni, Tayeb Kebdani, Hamid Mansouri, Noureddine Benjaafar, Brahim Khalil Elgueddari
January 2011, 3(1):43-45
DOI:10.4297/najms.2011.343  PMID:22540063
Context : Clear cell Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare carcinoma arising from sweat glands. It is an aggressive tumor that most metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant viscera; surgery with safe margins is the mainstay of treatment. Case Report: We report a case of 68-year-old woman who presented with an invasive clear cell hidradenocarcinoma situated in the left parotid area which recurred 5 months after surgery, this recurrence was managed successfully by high-dose irradiation of the tumor bed ( 66 Gy) and regional lymphatic chains (50 Gy), after a follow-up of more than 15 months, the patient is in good local control without significant toxicity. Conclusion : Post operative radiotherapy allows better local control and should be mandatory when histological features predictive of recurrence are present: positive margins, histology poorly differentiated, perineural invasion, vascular and lymphatic invasion, lymph node involvement, and extracapsular spread.
  6 2,079 353
Thyroid carcinoma presenting as a dural metastasis mimicking a meningioma: A case report
El Mehdi Tazi, Ismail Essadi, Hassan Errihani
January 2011, 3(1):39-42
DOI:10.4297/najms.2011.339  PMID:22540062
Context: Follicular thyroid cancer rarely manifests itself as a distant metastatic lesion. Case Report: We report a case of a 41-year old man presented with a solid mass located in the left temporo-occipital region. The 3D computed tomography showed a large solid mass with high vascularity, skull erosion and supra-infratentorial epidural mass effect. After magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a suspect diagnosis of meningioma was made. The patient underwent surgery where a soft mass with transverse sinus invasion was encountered; the tumour was successfully resected employing microsurgical techniques. Histological examination revealed a thyroid follicular neoplasm with positive staining for follicular carcinoma in immunohistochemical analysis. Postoperatively levels of thyroid hormones were normal. Treatment was planned for the thyroid gland, patient receiving 6 courses of chemotherapy including paclitaxel. Conclusions: The present case emphasizes that although they are uncommon, dural metastasis can be mistaken for meningiomas. The definitive diagnosis of a meningioma should be established only after the histopathological analysis. Thyroid follicular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of extrinsic tumoral lesions.
  5 2,174 288
A Survey of prevalence of serum antibodies to human immunodeficiency deficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among blood donors
John O Dirisu, Terry O Alli, Adeolu O Adegoke, Favour Osazuwa
January 2011, 3(1):35-38
DOI:10.4297/najms.2011.335  PMID:22540061
Background: It is a well known fact that HIV, HBV and HCV are global infectious pathogens contributing to mortality and morbidity in all ages thereby making them infections of grievous public health importance . As donor's potend a possible risk of transfusing these infections of global importance, it makes it imperative for the screening of blood and blood products for these pathogens. Aim: This study aims at determining the seroprevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among intending blood donors. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective data analysis for seroprevalence of antibodies to HIV, HBV and HCV was carried out between the 2 nd of January and 15 th of June 2010 among intending blood donors aged 18-45 and the association of these infections with age group and blood group were analyzed. Sterile venous anticoagulated blood was collected from each of the donors and analyzed for HIV, HBV and HCV using highly sensitive and specific kits. All the positive samples for HIV- 1/2 were sent for reconfirmation using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Of the 427 samples analyzed, 203 were positive for HIV, 200 for HBV and 24 for HCV, representing a prevalence of 47.54%, 46.83% and 5.71% respectively among intending blood donors. Among them, blood group "O positive" was the most common blood group with 59.25% followed by blood group B "positive", A "positive and O "negative" respectively (p<0.001). The analysis of relationship showed a tendency of high association of these infections in subjects with O "positive" blood group. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for proper screening of blood donors for HIV, HBV and HCV.
  5 1,745 356
A survey of blood pressure in Lebanese children and adolescence
Bassem Abou Merhi, Fatima Al-Hajj, Mohamad Al-Tannir, Fouad Ziade, Mariam El-Rajab
January 2011, 3(1):24-29
DOI:10.4297/najms.2011.324  PMID:22540059
Background: Blood pressure varies between populations due to ethnic and environmental factors. Therefore, normal blood pressure values should be determined for different populations. Aims : The aim of this survey was to produce blood pressure nomograms for Lebanese children in order to establish distribution curves of blood pressure by age and sex. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a survey of blood pressure in 5710 Lebanese schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years (2918 boys and 2792 girls), and studied the distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in these children and adolescents. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer using a standardized technique. Results: Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure had a positive correlation with weight, height, age, and body mass index (r= 0.648, 0.643, 0.582, and 0.44, respectively) (P < .001). There was no significant difference in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in boys compared to girls of corresponding ages. However, the average annual increase in systolic blood pressure was 2.86 mm Hg in boys and 2.63 mm Hg in girls, whereas the annual increase in diastolic blood pressure was 1.72 mm Hg in boys and 1.48 mm Hg in girls. The prevalence of high and high-normal blood pressure at the upper limit of normal (between the 90 th and 95 th percentile, at risk of future hypertension if not managed adequately), was 10.5% in boys and 6.9% in girls, with similar distributions among the two sexes. Conclusions: We present the first age-specific reference values for blood pressure of Lebanese children aged 5 to 15 years based on a good representative sample. The use of these reference values should help pediatricians identify children with normal, high-normal and high blood pressure.
  4 2,307 285
Pancreaticojejunostomy in proximal pancreatic transection: A viable option
Sandeep Bhat, Tariq P Azad, Manmeet Kaur
January 2011, 3(1):46-47
DOI:10.4297/najms.2011.346  PMID:22540064
Complete pancreatic transection following blunt abdominal trauma is not a common injury. Distal pancreatectomy with or without splenectomy is routinely performed if the transection is to the left of the superior mesenteric vessels. We performed pancreaticojejunostomy on a six-year-old female patient who presented with complete transection at the pancreatic neck following blunt abdominal trauma. The aim was to preserve the pancreatic parenchyma and the spleen and assess the feasibility of the procedure. The patient has been followed for more than one year and is doing well. We conclude that the procedure should be considered in proximal pancreatic transection, particularly in the pediatric age group.
  - 1,549 231