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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2013| January  | Volume 5 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 17, 2013

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Neck circumference as an anthropometric measure of obesity in diabetics
Jagadamba Aswathappa, Sumit Garg, Karthiyanee Kutty, Vinutha Shankar
January 2013, 5(1):28-31
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.106188  PMID:23378952
Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthropometric parameters like body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and NC were measured. Independent t-test and Pearson's correlation were the tests of significance done to analyze quantitative data. Results: There was positive correlation of NC, BMI, and index of central obesity. The NC in diabetics was significantly higher than in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). NC >36 cm in diabetics and >37 cm in non-diabetics was the best cutoff value to determine subjects with central obesity. Conclusion: The findings indicated that NC may be used both in clinical practice and in epidemiologic studies as a straightforward and reliable index. It is an economical easy to use test with less consumption of time and correlates well with other standard anthropometric parameters.
  33 4,411 739
Ideal timing of surgery for acute uncomplicated appendicitis
Frederick N Eko, Gabriel E Ryb, Leslie Drager, Eva Goldwater, Jacqueline J Wu, Timothy C Counihan
January 2013, 5(1):22-27
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.106186  PMID:23378951
Background: Early surgery for appendicitis is thought to avoid complications associated with appendiceal rupture. Aims: This study was to evaluate the effect of timing of surgery on complications, length of stay (LOS) and cost in patients undergoing appendectomy. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of 396 patients with appendectomies from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 was performed. Demographic data, time of presentation, physical findings, diagnostic data, operating room times, LOS, cost and complications were collected. Patients were divided into 4 groups based on time from presentation to appendectomy. Results: Pathology confirmed appendicitis in 354 (89%) patients. Most patients (90%) had surgery within 18 h of presentation. Timing of surgery did not affect the incidence of purulent peritonitis ( P = 0.883), abscess ( P = 0.841) or perforation ( P = 0.464). LOS was significantly shorter for patients with emergency department registration to operating room times less than 18 h ( P < 0.0001). Costs were significantly higher for patients with times to operating room greater than 18 h ( P < 0.001). Conclusion: Timing of surgery did not affect the incidence of complications or perforated appendicitis. However, delay in surgical consultation and surgery are associated with increased LOS and increased hospital costs. The optimal timing of appendectomy for uncomplicated acute appendicitis appears to be within 18 h of emergency department presentation.
  31 4,413 699
Hydatid cyst of spleen: A diagnostic challenge
Khalid Rasheed, Showkat Ali Zargar, Ajaz Ahmed Telwani
January 2013, 5(1):10-20
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.106184  PMID:23378949
Although splenic involvement alone in hydatid disease is very rare, spleen is the third most common organ involved in hydatid disease. The rarity of splenic hydatid disease poses a diagnostic challenge for clinicians, particularly in non-endemic areas. As the hydatid cyst can present as a simple cyst without having the classic serological and imaging features, and later can lead to life-threatening complications like anaphylaxis, hydatid disease of spleen should be considered in differential in every patient in endemic areas with cystic lesion of spleen until proved otherwise. The author used the keyword "splenic hydatid cyst" in PubMed and reviewed the scientific literatures published from January 1965 to June 2012. The present review is to accentuate the incidence, classification, clinical and pathophysiological features, differential diagnosis, diagnostic modalities, and treatment choices of hydatid cyst of spleen along with follow-up strategy and newer treatment approaches.
  28 3,775 630
Evaluation of total antioxidant capacity of saliva in type 2 diabetic patients with and without periodontal disease: A case-control study
Gowri Pendyala, Biju Thomas, Saurabh R Joshi
January 2013, 5(1):51-57
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.106208  PMID:23378957
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been linked with oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant defense. A connection has been established between diabetes and periodontal disease. Aim: The aim of present study was to compare salivary total antioxidant capacity of type 2 DM patients and healthy subjects with and without periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 subjects consisting of 30 type 2 DM patients with periodontal disease; 30 type 2 DM patients without periodontal disease; 30 healthy subjects with periodontal disease; 30 healthy subjects without periodontal disease were included in the study. After clinical measurement and samplings, total antioxidant capacity in saliva of type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects were determined, and the data were tested by non-parametric tests. Total antioxidant capacity of the clinical samples was determined spectrophotometrically. Results: The mean salivary total antioxidant capacity was lowest in diabetic patients with periodontitis. Conclusion: Total antioxidant capacity is inversely proportional to the severity of inflammation and can be used as an useful marker of periodontitis in healthy and diabetic patients.
  24 3,094 622
Serum cholesterol and ceruloplasmin levels in second trimester can predict development of pre-eclampsia
Madhusudan Dey, Devendra Arora, Nagarja Narayan, Reema Kumar
January 2013, 5(1):41-46
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.106198  PMID:23378955
Background: Pre-eclampsia is one of the leading causes of high rates of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia is still obscure. Currently, there are no screening tests for pre-eclampsia that are reliable, valid, and economical. Parameters of oxidative stress could be early markers of endothelial dysfunction that predates clinical pre-eclampsia. Aim: This study was to study ceruloplasmin in nulliparous women as marker of oxidative stress and lipid profile to evaluate their value in prediction of pre-eclampsia. Materials and Methods: Prospective observational study. 306 nulliparous women had their serum lipid profile and ceruloplasmin levels measured at 14-16 weeks period of gestation as sample 1 and at 18-20 weeks as sample 2. All cases were followed up till the end of pregnancy for development of pre-eclampsia. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the normals and pre-eclampsia cases at 14-16 week for all the oxidative stress parameters ( P > 0.05), but at 18-20 week, there was statistically significant difference between the normals and pre-eclampsia cases in cholesterol and ceruloplasmin parameters ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: Cholesterol and ceruloplasmin levels in second trimester (18-20 weeks) can predict the development of pre-eclampsia.
  13 2,268 387
A new technique to insert nasogastric tube in an unconscious intubated patient
Tanmoy Ghatak, Sukhen Samanta, Arvind Kumar Baronia
January 2013, 5(1):68-70
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.106215  PMID:23378961
Background: Insertion of a nasogastric tube in an unconscious intubated patient may be difficult as they cannot follow the swallowing instructions, and therefore has a high first attempt failure rate. Aim and Methods: We describe here a new technique to insert nasogastric tube in an unconscious intubated patient by neck flexion and using angiography catheter as a stylet and manipulating the cricoid ring of trachea for easy passage of nasogastric tube. Results and Conclusions: The technique is easy and helpful for nasogastric insertion in unconscious intubated patients. Additionally, it neither alters vital responses nor increases intracranial pressure like with laryngoscopy.
  13 3,795 521
Laparoscopic staging and surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer
Thiruvengadam Muniraj, Pranav Barve
January 2013, 5(1):1-9
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.106183  PMID:23378948
Pancreatic cancer is the tenth most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Surgery remains a cornerstone in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Unfortunately, the percentage of patients presenting at the resectable stage is minimal. Although computed tomography (CT) scan remains the best modality to stage the tumor for resectability, laparoscopy and laparoscopic ultrasound offers its own advantages. Extended lymphadenectomy, portal vein resection, and arterial reconstruction have also been explored in multiple studies to enhance staging. The traditional pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure) with regional lymphadenectomy is still the standard of care in the surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer.
  12 2,624 515
POI: Premature ovarian insufficiency/pregnancy or infertility?
Ilaria Soave, Giuseppe Lo Monte, Roberto Marci
January 2013, 5(1):71-71
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.106217  PMID:23378962
  5 1,475 256
Brainstem auditory evoked potential abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Sharat Gupta, Pooja Baweja, Shallu Mittal, Avnish Kumar, Kamal D Singh, Raghuvansh Sharma
January 2013, 5(1):60-65
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.106211  PMID:23378959
Background: Diabetes mellitus represents a syndrome complex in which multiple organ systems, including the central nervous system, are affected. Aim: The study was conducted to determine the changes in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 126 diabetic males, aged 35-50 years, and 106 age-matched, healthy male volunteers. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials were recorded and the results were analyzed statistically using student's unpaired t-test. The data consisted of wave latencies I, II, III, IV, V and interpeak latencies I-III, III-V and I-V, separately for both ears. Results: The latency of wave IV was significantly delayed only in the right ear, while the latency of waves III, V and interpeak latencies III-V, I-V showed a significant delay bilaterally in diabetic males. However, no significant difference was found between diabetic and control subjects as regards to the latency of wave IV unilaterally in the left ear and the latencies of waves I, II and interpeak latency I-III bilaterally. Conclusion: Diabetes patients have an early involvement of central auditory pathway, which can be detected with fair accuracy with auditory evoked potential studies.
  5 2,269 401
Knowledge and attitude of medical undergraduate, interns and postgraduate students in India towards emergency contraception
Purushottam A Giri, Vidyadhar B Bangal, Deepak B Phalke
January 2013, 5(1):37-40
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.106193  PMID:23378954
Background: Although India was the first country in the world to have national family planning policy, the acceptance of contraceptive methods has been unsatisfactory. Many women in their peak reproductive years, who wish to control their fertility, are not aware about the different methods of contraceptives available. Unregulated fertility results in unplanned pregnancies. Emergency contraceptive pills can avoid many such unplanned pregnancies. Aim: The study was to assess the knowledge and attitude about emergency contraception (EC) among the undergraduate, interns and postgraduate medical science university students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 180 medical students which include undergraduate (final year MBBS), interns, and postgraduate students (60 from each group) studying at Rural Medical College and Pravara Rural Hospital of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences University of central India by a convenient sample method over a period of February 2009 to May 2009. Data were collected by pre-designed, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed in the form of percentage and proportions and Chi-square test was applied. Results: In this study, a total of 180 respondents, of which 110 (61.2%) were male and 70 (38.8%) were female. The knowledge about EC was highest (47.6%) among postgraduates in comparison to interns (43.3%) and undergraduate students (41.6%). Overall positive attitude toward EC was observed among 73.8% of the respondents. Conclusions: Considering the role of a medical graduate as counselor and health-care provider, the technical knowledge about different aspects of EC among the study population was inadequate.
  5 5,744 1,516
Oxidative stress in diabetes and periodontitis
Janaina de Cássia Orlandi Sardi
January 2013, 5(1):58-59
  3 1,210 278
Excellent tolerance to cilnidipine in hypertensives with amlodipine - induced edema
Ranjan Shetty, G Vivek, Kushal Naha, Anil Tumkur, Abhinav Raj, KL Bairy
January 2013, 5(1):47-50
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.106203  PMID:23378956
Background: Ankle edema is a common adverse effect of amlodipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker (CCB). Cilnidipine is a newer L/N-type CCB, approved for treatment of essential hypertension. Aim: This study was designed to determine whether cilnidipine can produce resolution of amlodipine-induced edema while maintaining adequate control of hypertension. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was performed on 27 patients with essential hypertension with amlodipine-induced edema. Concomitant nephropathy, cardiac failure, hepatic cirrhosis, or other causes of edema, and secondary hypertension were excluded by appropriate tests. Amlodipine therapy was substituted in all the cases with an efficacy-equivalent dose of cilnidipine. Clinical assessment of ankle edema and measurement of bilateral ankle circumference, body weight, blood pressure, and pulse rate were performed at onset of the study and after 4 weeks of cilnidipine therapy. Results: At completion of the study, edema had resolved in all the patients. There was a significant decrease in bilateral ankle circumference and body weight ( P < 0.001). There was no significant change in mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate. Conclusions: Therapy with cilnidipine resulted in complete resolution of amlodipine-induced edema in all the cases without significant worsening of hypertension or tachycardia. Cilnidipine is an acceptable alternative antihypertensive for patients with amlodipine-induced edema.
  3 8,474 1,099
Male erectile dysfunction and microalbuminuria in adult nigerians with essential hypertension
Olusegun Adesola Busari, Oladimeji George Opadijo, Timothy Olusegun Olarewaju, Yusuf Olatunji Oladosu
January 2013, 5(1):32-36
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.106191  PMID:23378953
Background: Microalbuminuria has been described as a marker of generalized vascular damage. Aims: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and microalbuminuria in adult male Nigerians with newly diagnosed hypertension. We also evaluated the relations between ED and microalbuminuria, electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, serum lipids, and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 male adult Nigerians with newly diagnosed hypertension were recruited into the study. There were also 75 age- and sex-matched healthy normotensive controls. ED was evaluated using a standardized questionnaire of the International Index of Erectile Function and microalbuminuria was determined using the Micra Test strips (Boehringer Manneheim GMBh, Mannheim, Germany). Results: Eighty-one hypertensive patients and 75 normotensive controls were studied. Mean age of the patients and the controls was 53.8 ± 5.6 and 51.2 ± 7.1 respectively. ED was found in 32.1% of the hypertensive patients and 16% of normotensive controls ( P < 0.001). The prevalence of microalbuminuria was significantly higher in patients with ED than in those without it (65.4% vs. 23.6%, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The study shows that ED and microalbuminuria are common in male adult Nigerians with hypertension. It also demonstrates that male ED is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
  2 2,304 280
Hydatid cysts
Papavramidis Theodossis
January 2013, 5(1):21-21
  - 1,061 200
Diabetes and hearing dysfunction: Under- recognized complication of diabetes?
Mariusz Dabrowski
January 2013, 5(1):66-67
  - 1,164 231
Male breast cancer presenting with bilateral pleural effusion
Saurabh Karmakar, Tamojit Chaudhuri, Alok Nath, Zafar Neyaz
January 2013, 5(1):72-74
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.106218  PMID:23378963
  - 1,680 269
Hemolytic anemia in a female patient presenting for routine cholecystectomy
Saifullah Khalid, Samreen Zaheer, Sufian Zaheer, Mohammed Sheeraz Alam, Mohd Khalid
January 2013, 5(1):75-76
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.106220  PMID:23378964
  - 1,813 221