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   2013| June  | Volume 5 | Issue 6  
    Online since June 28, 2013

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV positive patients attending antiretroviral therapy clinic
Purushottam A Giri, Jayant D Deshpande, Deepak B Phalke
June 2013, 5(6):367-370
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.114169  PMID:23923111
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common serious opportunistic infection in HIV positive patients and is the manifestation of AIDS in more than 50% of cases in developing countries. TB can occur at any time during the course of HIV infection. Aim: To describe the socio-demographic profile and prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (HIV/TB co-infection) among HIV positive patients been attended at the antiretroviral therapy clinic (ART) clinic at tertiary care teaching hospital of western Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the ART clinic of Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, from June 2011 to May 2012. A total of 1012 HIV positive patients, who attended ART clinic, receiving ART treatment during the study period, were included in the analysis. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (Version 17.0). Results: This study showed 1012/172 (17%) prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV positive patients, of which 87 (50.58%) were males and 85 (48.42%) were females. Low CD4 count (< 50/μl) had statistically significant association with HIV/TB co-infection as compared to HIV infection only ( P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The study showed that 17% of HIV infected persons had tuberculosis co-infection. More strategic preventive measures that enhance body immunity among HIV patients are highly needed as early as possible before they develop active tuberculosis.
  10,473 1,565 18
Pars inter-articularis and laminar morphology of the terminal lumbar vertebra in lumbosacral transitional variations
Niladri Kumar Mahato
June 2013, 5(6):357-361
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.114167  PMID:23923109
Background: Lumbo-sacral transitional variations are common in the general population. Structural inadequacies of the terminal lumbar vertebral pars interarticularis (PI) and lamina have often been implicated as important factors for lumbo-sacral instability. Aims: Quantifying dimensions of PI and laminae in terminal lumbar vertebrae associated with lumbosacral transitions and compare them with their normal counterparts. Materials and Methods: Fourth lumbar vertebrae in spines involved with complete sacralization of the fifth lumbar (L5) vertebrae and L5 vertebrae associated with lumbosacral accessory articulation were measured for the height, width and thickness of the PI and the laminae on both sides and compared to normal vertebrae. Results: Dimensions in sacralization associated terminal vertebrae were smaller than the normal. The height of the PI and the widths of laminae were observed to be significantly smaller in terminal lumbar segment in sacralized specimen. Lumbo-sacral accessory articulations demonstrated smaller overall dimensions of several parameters. Lamiane in the last lumbar segment associated with lumbo-sacral transitions demonstrate smaller dimensions compared to the normal ones. Sacralization results in maximum diminution of these parameters. Conclusions: Smaller PI may predispose spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis at lumbo-sacral junctions associated with transitional variations, and warrant special attention to avoid iatrogenic injuries.
  5,419 475 5
Cyst of the canal of nuck in pediatric patients
Ibrahim Akkoyun, Ilknur Kucukosmanoglu, Ertugrul Yalinkilinc
June 2013, 5(6):353-356
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.114166  PMID:23923108
Background: Cyst of the canal of Nuck is a rare cause of inguinal swelling in female infants and children. Aim: The purpose of this study is to discuss the clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings, differential diagnosis, and surgical treatment of this disease in the light of our experience. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in six children who were operated on with cyst of the canal of Nuck at the pediatric surgery clinic in July 1998-March 2013. All information was collected from patient's files and computer records retrospectively. Results: Patients were between the ages of 1 and 12 years. Size of the cysts has varied between 23 mm and 55.2 mm. In all cases, cyst was on the right side. In physical examination while five cases had palpable, well-circumscribed, mobile and painless mass, in one case the mass was immobile. In one patient, the mass was reducible; in the other 5 patients the mass was non-reducible. First patient was operated immediately with the early diagnosis of incarcerated inguinal hernia, the second one was operated under elective conditions with early diagnosis of inguinal hernia and it was diagnosed during operation, and in the last 4 patients pre-operative true diagnosis was possible. Conclusions: As clinical findings of the cyst of the canal of Nuck are variable, pre-operative true diagnosis can only be related to increasing experience.
  5,221 410 14
Antibiotic resistance in sepsis patients: Evaluation and recommendation of antibiotic use
Ivan Surya Pradipta, Dian Chairunnisa Sodik, Keri Lestari, Ida Parwati, Eli Halimah, Ajeng Diantini, Rizky Abdulah
June 2013, 5(6):344-352
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.114165  PMID:23923107
Background: The appropriate selection of empirical antibiotics based on the pattern of local antibiotic resistance can reduce the mortality rate and increase the rational use of antibiotics. Aims: We analyze the pattern of antibiotic use and the sensitivity patterns of antibiotics to support the rational use of antibiotics in patients with sepsis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted in adult sepsis patient at one of Indonesian hospital during January-December 2011. Data were collected from the hospital medical record department. Descriptive analysis was used in the processing and interpretation of data. Results: A total of 76 patients were included as research subjects. Lung infection was the highest source of infection. In the 66.3% of clinical specimens that were culture positive for microbes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus hominis were detected with the highest frequency. The six most frequently used antibiotics, levofloxacin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and erythromycin, showed an average resistance above 50%. Conclusions: The high use of antibiotic with a high level resistance requires a policy to support its rational use. Local microbial pattern based on site infection and pattern of antibiotics sensitivity test can be used as supporting data to optimize appropriateness of empirical antibiotics therapy in sepsis patients.
  4,379 893 21
REVIEW ARTICLE
Fecal transplantation for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection
Zeid Karadsheh, Sachin Sule
June 2013, 5(6):339-343
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.114163  PMID:23923106
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is currently a leading cause of antibiotic and health care-related diarrhea. The incidence and the severity of CDI-related diarrhea have increased dramatically in the USA and Europe in the past few decades. The emergence of multidrug-resistant hypervirulent strains of C. difficile has led to an increase in mortality. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) (also known as fecal bacteriotherapy) has been utilized sporadically since the 1950s; and currently, the interest in using FMT has grown again in the past few years for the treatment of CDI and other chronic gastrointestinal diseases. FMT has shown to be effective, cheap, and has very few side effects. It is believed to manipulate and restore the gut microbiota, and therefore enhances the growth of "healthy" bacteria that break the cycle of recurrent CDI. This article focus on the recent case reports on FMT, and general approach to patients undergoing this therapy. Data were obtained through a literature search via PubMed and Google.
  4,583 642 15
RESEARCH LETTER
Langerhans cell sarcoma arising from chronic lymphocytic lymphoma/small lymphocytic leukemia: lineage analysis and braf v600e mutation study
Weiwei Chen, Ronald Jaffe, Linsheng Zhang, Charlie Hill, Anne Marie Block, Sheila Sait, Boer Song, Yunguang Liu, Donghong Cai
June 2013, 5(6):386-391
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.114172  PMID:23923114
Background: The phenomenon that histiocytic/dendritic cell sarcomas may be transformed from lymphoproliferative diseases is dubbed 'transdifferentiation'. Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) transdifferentiated from chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small cell lymphoma (CLL/SLL) is extremely rare. The underlying mechanisms of LCS tumorogenesis and its transdifferentiation from CLL/SLL are largely unknown. Aims: the authors strive to further characterize LCS, to understand the potential molecular changes in LCS and the underlying mechanisms of CLL/SLL transformation to LCS. Materials and Methods: a progressively enlarging right inguinal lymph node from a 68-year-old female patient with a history of CLL was biopsied and submitted for flow cytometry analysis, routine hematoxylin, and eosin (H and E) stain and immunohistochemical study. Furthermore, clonality study (fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with a CLL panel probes) and BRAF V600E mutation study (pyrosequencing and immunostain) were performed. Results: two different neoplasms, LCS and CLL/SLL, were discovered to occur simultaneously in the same lymph node. These two entities were shown to be clonally related. More importantly, for the first time, BRAF V600E mutation was detected in LCS. Conclusions: LCS can be transdifferentiated from CLL/SLL and BRAF V600E mutation may provide the foundation for alternative therapy of LCS.
  3,493 496 27
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Micronutrient intake and the presence of the metabolic syndrome
Soudabe Motamed, Mahmoud Ebrahimi, Mohammad Safarian, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Mohsen Mouhebati, Mahmoudreza Azarpazhouh, Habibollah Esmailie, Abdolreza Norouzi, Gordon AA Ferns
June 2013, 5(6):377-385
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.114171  PMID:23923113
Background: Dietary micronutrients have been proposed to protect against oxidative damage and related clinical complications. Aims: We aimed to compare the micronutrient intake between individuals with and without metabolic syndrome (MS). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 3800 men and women who were aged between 35 and 65 years. The diagnosis of the MS was based on International Diabetes Federation criteria. Dietary intake of participants was assessed using a questionnaire for 24 h dietary recall. Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for comparing the micronutrient intake of subjects with or without the MS and the odds ratio for the presence of the MS was calculated for each micronutrient by control for total energy intake adjusted by the residue method. Results: The mean age of MS subjects and the control group was 48.8 ± 7.9 years and 47.6 ± 7.6 years, respectively. Energy-adjusted intake of vitamin E ( P < 0.05), B2 ( P < 0.01), and B12 ( P < 0.05) was higher in normal women compared with women with MS. Energy-adjusted intake of vitamin B1 was significantly higher in women with MS. After logistic regression analysis, no significant association between micronutrient intake and MS was shown. Conclusion: We found no significant association between micronutrient intake and MS.
  2,872 440 19
Association of carotid plaque echogenicity with recurrence of ischemic stroke
Amit Shankar Singh, Virendra Atam, Nirdesh Jain, Besthanahalli Errapa Yathish, Malagouda R Patil, Liza Das
June 2013, 5(6):371-376
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.114170  PMID:23923112
Background: Atherosclerosis is related to various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events like cerebral infarction. Recurrence of ischemic stroke is specifically related to atherosclerotic load as determined by the presence of carotid atheromatous plaques and its echogenicity. Aim: This study was to evaluate the association of recurrence of stroke with echogenic characteristics of carotid plaque in ischemic stroke patients. Materials and Methods: Carotid sonography using high-resolution 7.5 MHz along with gray-scale technique was done in each ischemic stroke patient to find the occurrence of plaque and its echogenicity according to Mannheim Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Consensus (2004-2006). Followup of patient done to know the recurrence of stroke during 6-month duration and its association with plaque echogenicity. Results: A significant association found between the presence of plaque and known cerebrovascular risk factors. Also significant association found between recurrence of stroke and echolucent character of carotid plaque in bivariate analysis ( P = 0.0028). Conclusions: Recurrence of stroke is related to advanced stage of atherosclerosis that is specified by carotid plaque and its characteristics. It will help us to identify groups of patients at different risk for stroke and planning better strategies to prevent such events.
  2,668 451 12
Association of obstructive sleep apnea severity with exercise capacity and health-related quality of life
Katrina L Butner, Trent A Hargens, Anthony S Kaleth, Larry E Miller, Donald Zedalis, William G Herbert
June 2013, 5(6):362-366
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.114168  PMID:23923110
Background: Current research is inconclusive as to whether obstructive sleep apnea severity directly limits exercise capacity and lowers health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of obstructive sleep apnea severity with determinants of exercise capacity and HRQoL. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were evaluated by home somnography and classified as no obstructive sleep apnea ( n = 43) or as having mild ( n = 27), moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea ( n = 21). Exercise capacity was assessed by a ramping cycle ergometer test, and HRQoL was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. Results: Greater obstructive sleep apnea severity was associated with older age, higher body weight, higher body mass index, lower peak aerobic capacity, a higher percentage of peak aerobic capacity at a submaximal exercise intensity of 55 watts, and lower physical component summary score from the SF-36. None of these variables were statistically different among obstructive sleep apnea severity groups after controlling for age and body weight. Obstructive sleep apnea severity was not associated with any cardiorespiratory fitness or HRQoL parameter. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea severity has no independent association with exercise capacity or HRQoL.
  2,298 384 11
LETTER TO EDITOR
Ligation is not enough to secure the aortic end of the anomalous systemic artery
Huang Shaohong, Li Yun, Chen Huiguo, Rong Jian
June 2013, 5(6):392-394
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.114173  PMID:23923115
  1,327 187 -
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