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   2015| March  | Volume 7 | Issue 3  
    Online since March 25, 2015

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Statin intolerance because of myalgia, myositis, myopathy, or myonecrosis can in most cases be safely resolved by vitamin d supplementation
Maksim Khayznikov, Kallish Hemachrandra, Ramesh Pandit, Ashwin Kumar, Ping Wang, Charles J Glueck
March 2015, 7(3):86-93
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.153919  PMID:25838999
Background: Low serum vitamin D can cause myalgia, myositis, myopathy, and myonecrosis. Statin-induced myalgia is a major and common cause of statin intolerance. Low serum vitamin D and statins, additively or synergistically, cause myalgia, myositis, myopathy, and/or myonecrosis. Statin-induced myalgia in vitamin D deficient patients can often be resolved by vitamin D supplementation, normalizing serum vitamin D levels. Aims: In 74 men and 72 women (age 59 ± 14 years) intolerant to ≥2 statins because of myalgia, myositis, myopathy, or myonecrosis and found to have low (<32 ng/mL) serum vitamin D, we prospectively assessed whether vitamin D supplementation (vitamin D2: 50,000-100,000 units/week) to normalize serum vitamin D would allow successful rechallenge therapy with statins. Materials and Methods: Follow-up evaluation on vitamin D supplementation was done on 134 patients at 6 months (median 5.3), 103 patients at 12 months (median 12.2), and 82 patients at 24 months (median 24). Results: Median entry serum vitamin D (22 ng/mL, 23 ng/mL, and 23 ng/mL) rose at 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months follow-up to 53 ng/mL, 53 ng/mL, and 55 ng/mL, respectively, (P < .0001 for all) on vitamin D therapy (50,000-100,000 units/week). On vitamin D supplementation, serum vitamin D normalized at 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months follow-up in 90%, 86%, and 91% of the patients, respectively. On rechallenge with statins while on vitamin D supplementation, median low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) fell from the study entry (167 mg/dL, 164 mg/dL, and 158 mg/dL) to 90 mg/dL, 91 mg/dL, and 84 mg/dL, respectively, (P < .0001 for all). On follow-up at median 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months on statins and vitamin D, 88%, 91%, and 95% of the previously statin-intolerant patients, respectively, were free of myalgia, myositis, myopathy, and/or myonecrosis. Conclusions: Statin intolerance because of myalgia, myositis, myopathy, or myonecrosis associated with low serum vitamin D can be safely resolved by vitamin D supplementation (50,000-100,000 units /week) in most cases (88-95%).
  5,726 1,263 53
Factors associated with the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in Portland, Jamaica
Butho Ncube, Amita Bey, Jeremy Knight, Patricia Bessler, Pauline E Jolly
March 2015, 7(3):104-113
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.153922  PMID:25839002
Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and is the leading cause of deaths in developing countries. Despite the strong evidence that cervical cancer screening results in decreased mortality from this disease, the uptake for cervical screening among Jamaican women remains low. Aims : This study was carried out to identify factors associated with Jamaican women's decisions to screen for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of 403 women aged 19 years and older from Portland, Jamaica. An interviewer-administered questionnaire assessed the women's cervical cancer screening history, as well as their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding the disease and screening. Results: Of the 403 women interviewed, 66% had a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear and only 16% had a Pap test within the past year. Significant predicators of uptake of screening were being married, age, parity, discussing cancer with health provider, perception of consequences of not having a Pap smear, and knowing a person with cervical cancer. Women who did not know where to go for a Pap smear were 85% less likely to have been screened (prevalence odds ratio (POR): 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04, 0.52). Conclusions: This study showed suboptimal uptake of cervical cancer screening among Jamaican women. Multipronged approaches are needed to address barriers to screening, as well as identify and support conditions that encourage women's use of reproductive health services, thereby reducing incidence and mortality rates from cervical cancer.
  4,397 607 18
REVIEW ARTICLE
Clinical use of insulin degludec: Practical experience and pragmatic suggestions
Sanjay Kalra, Yashdeep Gupta
March 2015, 7(3):81-85
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.153918  PMID:25838998
Insulin degludec (IDeg) is an ultralong acting basal insulin. IDeg has unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties which allow once a daily dosage, at any time of the day. Its use is associated with a significantly lower risk of hypoglycemia. This review discusses the pragmatic use of IDeg, based on available evidence. A complete search of all nine original research papers (BEGIN® clinical trial program) pertaining to IDeg, listed in PubMed, was made to prepare this article.
  2,924 748 7
CASE REPORTS
Rhabdomyolysis secondary to influenza a infection: A case report and review of the literature
Mario F Fadila, Kenneth J Wool
March 2015, 7(3):122-124
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.153926  PMID:25839005
Context : Rhabdomyolysis is a serious clinical syndrome that results from damage to skeletal muscles. Common causes include drugs, crush injuries, seizures, heat, exertion, and infection. Viral infections, particularly Influenza A, have been recognized as a cause of rhabdomyolysis. Case Report: Our report describes a 58-year-old male who presented with viral pneumonia secondary to Influenza A virus infection. His hospital course was complicated by acute renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis, which was attributed to an overwhelming viremia. We discuss the differential diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis and review the literature for cases of Influenza A-related rhabdomyolysis. We also discuss the proposed mechanisms for the condition. Conclusion : The scope of clinical manifestations of Influenza A infection extends beyond pulmonary syndromes. Rhabdomyolysis is being increasingly recognized as a complication of Influenza A infection with considerable morbidity and mortality.
  2,791 674 22
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antidepressant-like activity of flunarizine in modified tail suspension test in rats
Vinod Shinde, Radha Yegnanarayan, Priyank Shah, Ankush Gupta, Prachi Pophale
March 2015, 7(3):100-103
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.153921  PMID:25839001
Background: Flunarizine, a Ca 2+ channel blocker, crosses blood brain barrier (BBB), antagonizes calcium influx and interferes with neurotransmitter system. Flunarizine 20 mg/kg exhibited significant antidepressant activity in our previous study using forced swim test (FST) in mice, which was contradictory to the findings of other authors. Hence, the present study was designed to strengthen the results of our previous study, using the modified tail suspension test (TST) in rats. Aim: Aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant activity of flunarizine versus standard antidepressant drug fluoxetine in modified TST in rats. Materials and Methods: The study approved by Institutional Animal Ethics Committee was conducted using 24 adult albino rats (n = 6 in each group). Antidepressant effect of normal saline (0.1 ml/100 g), fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (ip)), and flunarizine (2 and 10 mg/kg, ip) was evaluated by using modified TST in rats. Thirty minutes after administration of all test drugs the duration of immobility was recorded for a period of 5 min in all rats by using modified TST. The data was analyzed by Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Mean duration of immobility was significantly reduced in fluoxetine and flunarizine (10 mg/kg, ip) group as compared to the normal saline, that is, 160.33, 175.17, and 226.83 s, respectively (P < 0.05). Decrease in immobility with flunarizine (10 mg/kg, ip) was statistically significant compared with normal saline, but was not found to be significant when compared to fluoxetine (P > 0.05). Also, currently used human dose of flunarizine when extrapolated to rats (i. e., 2 mg/kg, ip) failed to show significant antidepressant effect in modified TST in rats. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate antidepressant-like activity of flunarizine.
  2,482 327 3
CASE REPORTS
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
Nagesh Kamath, Sumit Bhatia, Harneet Singh, Anurag Shetty, Shiran Shetty
March 2015, 7(3):125-128
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.153928  PMID:25839006
Background: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder, which affects various internal organs and has a tendency for bleeding. It has a classic triad of mucocutaneous telangiectasias, recurrent hemorrhages and positive familial history of first-degree relative. Epistaxis or gastrointestinal telangiectasia can be fatal in a small number of cases. Case Report: A 44-year-old woman came with complaints of recurrent episodes of hematemesis and epistaxis. Patient had a family history of similar complaints. Patient underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), which revealed telangiectasia in the stomach. Imaging of the abdomen showed features suggestive of arteriovenous shunting. Conclusion: HHT can remain undiagnosed for a long time, and is rarely being reported in the literature with management needing a multidisciplinary approach with early inputs from a gastroenterologist.
  2,022 295 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Nicotine dependence, physical activity, and sedentary behavior among adult smokers
Paul D Loprinzi, Jerome F Walker
March 2015, 7(3):94-99
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.153920  PMID:25839000
Background: Research has previously demonstrated an inverse association between smoking status and physical activity; however, few studies have examined the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity or sedentary behavior. Aim: This study examined the association between nicotine dependence and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Materials and Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used. A total of 851 adult (≥20 years) smokers wore an accelerometer for ≥4 days and completed the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scale. Regression models were used to examine the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity/sedentary behavior. Results: After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, hypertension, emphysema, bronchitis, body mass index (BMI), cotinine, and accelerometer wear time, smokers 50 + years of age with greater nicotine dependence engaged in more sedentary behavior (β = 11.4, P = 0.02) and less light-intensity physical activity (β = −9.6, P = 0.03) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; β = −0.14, P = 0.003) than their less nicotine dependent counterparts. Conclusion: Older adults who are more nicotine dependent engage in less physical activity (both MVPA and light-intensity) and more sedentary behavior than their less nicotine dependent counterparts.
  1,905 391 5
CASE REPORTS
Left ventricular aneurysm and ventricular tachycardia as initial presentation of cardiac sarcoidosis
Ashraf Jmeian, Mohammad Thawabi, Irvin Goldfarb, Fayez Shamoon
March 2015, 7(3):114-118
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.153923  PMID:25839003
Context: Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is a rare, potentially fatal disease. It has a wide range of clinical presentations that range from asymptomatic electrocardiogram changes to sudden cardiac death. Ventricular aneurysms and ventricular tachycardia are seen late in the disease, and are rarely the presenting manifestation of the disease. Diagnosis of CS is challenging and often missed or delayed. Case Report: We report a 35-year-old patient who presented with sustained ventricular tachycardia and ST-elevation on electrocardiogram. Cardiac catheterization showed normal coronaries and left ventricular aneurysm. Subsequent 2D-echocardiography showed an infiltrative disease pattern. Cardiac MRI was done and showed late gadolinium enhancement in the septum, apex and lateral wall. The patient was diagnosed with cardiac sarcoidosis and treated with immune suppression and antiarrhythmic agent. In addition underwent AICD implantation. Conclusion: Our case highlights the importance of suspecting cardiac sarcoidosis in young patients presenting with electrocardiogram changes, and present an atypical presentation of this disease.
  1,942 224 -
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis in long standing Graves' disease: An unusual presentation with normokalemia
Lakshmi Kannan, Young Nam Kim
March 2015, 7(3):119-121
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.153924  PMID:25839004
Context: Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a potentially life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism that is underdiagnosed and frequently missed. It is relatively common in Asian men with Graves' disease. TPP attacks are frequently associated with hypokalemia. Case Report: Here we report a non-Asian female patient with Graves' disease, who presented with flaccid paralysis associated with an episode of subacute thyroiditis (SAT). Interestingly, she was found to have low normal potassium levels in the serum during the initial attack despite which she continues to require low dose potassium supplementation to prevent recurrent TPP attacks. Unique features in our patient include her gender, ethnicity, time lag between initial diagnosis of Graves' disease, and the development of TPP and borderline low potassium levels, with the continuous need for prophylactic potassium supplementation. Conclusion: It is important to be aware of this complication of hyperthyroidism that has a dramatic yet variable presentation, but is readily amenable to therapy.
  1,449 189 1
LETTER TO EDITOR
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under epidural anesthesia: A feasibility study
Habib Md. Reazaul Karim, Jayanta Kr. Mitra
March 2015, 7(3):129-130
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.153929  PMID:25839007
  1,295 164 -
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