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  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2015| June  | Volume 7 | Issue 6  
    Online since June 25, 2015

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Association between periodontitis and Alzheimer's disease
Keshava Abbayya, Nagraj Y Puthanakar, Sanjay Naduwinmani, YS Chidambar
June 2015, 7(6):241-246
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.159325  PMID:26199919
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease which significantly increases with age. Its onset can be either early or late. AD is characterized by the salient inflammatory features, microglial activation, and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines which contribute to the inflammatory status of the central nervous system (CNS). Whereas, periodontitis is a common oral infection associated with the gram negative anaerobic bacteria. Periodontitis can be marked as a "low-grade systemic disease" by release of proinflammatory cytokines into systemic circulation and elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP). Inflammation is known to play a pivotal role in both the disease process serving as a connecting link between periodontitis and AD. The present review throws a light on possible enigmatic link between AD and periodontitis. This review is designed by collecting data from PubMed database using key words like "Alzheimer's disease", "inflammation", "periodontitis", and "proinflammatory cytokines".
  8,537 1,655 53
CASE REPORTS
Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis, a misleading presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis
Mohammad Thawabi, Sarah Studyvin
June 2015, 7(6):291-294
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157490  PMID:26199928
Context: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the most serious complications of diabetes. It is characterized by a triad of increased total body ketone concentration, metabolic acidosis, and uncontrolled hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia is a key diagnostic criterion of DKA; however, in some rare cases, normal glucose levels can be present. Case Reports: We describe two patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1); one who presented with a Bartholin's gland abscess and the other with acute pancreatitis. Both patients had maintained adequate hydration and continued to take their insulin without sufficient carbohydrate intake in the previous days prior to presentation. Despite their normal serum glucose levels upon presentation, they were found to have ketonemia and acidosis consistent with DKA. If only the serum glucose level was taken into consideration, while ignoring the rest of their biochemical profiles and failing to obtain ketone levels, the diagnoses would have been missed. Conclusion: Euglycemic DKA is usually seen in otherwise healthy patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who have decreased carbohydrate intake in the presence of adequate hydration and a degree of insulin intake. Recognition of this entity by the emergency provider is crucial when patients with DM1 present with a picture of DKA, regardless of their blood sugar.
  5,585 847 12
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Predictors of morbidity and mortality in organophosphorus poisoning: A case study in rural hospital in Karnataka, India
Tanveer Hassan Banday, Bharath Tathineni, Mehul Surendra Desai, Vikas Naik
June 2015, 7(6):259-265
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.159331  PMID:26199922
Background: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides poisoning can result from occupational, accidental or intentional exposure. Clinical manifestations include cholinergic syndromes, central nervous (CNS) system and cardiovascular disorders. Death is usually due to cardiovascular and respiratory failure. Aim: To evaluate various parameters that can predict outcome of patients in OP poisoning. Materials and Methods: A prospective study conducted in Department of Medicine, Adichunchingiri Institute Of medical Sciences and Research Centre, Karnataka, over period of 1 year. Diagnosis of OP poisoning was based on clinical history of exposure to OP compound and low serum pseudocholinesterase levels. Results: In the present study 133 patients were enrolled, out of which 98.5% were suicidal cases and only 1.5% had accidental exposure. Majority of cases were young male, with F/M ratio 1:3.2. Mortality rates were higher in younger people and in patients who required prolonged ventilator support. The mortality rate was directly proportional to amount of poison consumed, lag time, organ failure (Acute Renal Failure) and plasma pseudocholinesterase levels. Acute complications were frequently noted and were related to morbidity and mortality. No strict relationship was found between liver dysfunction, electrolyte disturbance and clinical outcome. Conclusion: This case study concluded that mortality is directly proportionate to the lag time, amount of OP substances consumed, clinical severity, pseudocholinesterase levels, Acute renal failure and duration of ventilatory support. This study highlights the importance of rapid diagnosis, and initiation of early and effective treatment, which may result in less number complications and also decreases the mortality rates.
  5,054 571 12
Effectiveness of group versus individual yoga exercises on fatigue of patients with multiple sclerosis
Soheila Karbandi, Mohammad Ali Heidari Gorji, Seed Reza Mazloum, Abbas Norian, Naiereh Aghaei
June 2015, 7(6):266-270
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.159332  PMID:26199923
Background: Multiple sclerosis disorders poses heavy physical and emotional effect on patients who are associated with the disease. Aim: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of individual versus group exercises on fatigue on patients with multiple sclerosis. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 85 patients with multiple sclerosis were divided in two groups of individualized exercise and team exercise. The intervention was conducted for 6 weeks and comprised of mild stretching and basic yoga exercises twice a day. The data were collected through demographic questionnaire, standard fatigue scale and self-reported checklist. Data analysis was performed by SPSS software. Results: The mean levels of fatigue perception after the intervention in group exercise was 27.9 ± 15.9 and 27.1 ± 17.2 in individual exercise. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). Statistically significant difference was observed in the mean level of perceived fatigue in triplicate measurements (P = 0.013) among patients who completed individual exercise. However, this difference was not significant in the group exercise. Conclusion: Performing mild stretching exercises and basic yoga are recommended as a cost-effective method which is easy to perform among patients with mild to moderate disabilities.
  3,689 631 9
Abdominal tuberculosis: An immigrant's disease in the United States
Waqas Jehangir, Rafay Khan, Constante Gil, Marilyn Baruiz-Creel, Geraldo Bandel, John R Middleton, Purnendu Sen
June 2015, 7(6):247-252
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157484  PMID:26199920
Background: Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is an uncommon condition in the United States (US) except for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). An increasing number of cases have been reported in western countries amongst immigrants. It is important to be aware of the data and clinical characteristics in the immigrant population. Aims: The purpose of this study is to determine the epidemiologic characteristics of abdominal TB among immigrants in the US and to review the clinical presentations of abdominal TB with a focus particularly on unusual features. Materials and Methods: In a community teaching hospital in New Jersey, patients diagnosed with abdominal TB were examined and included in this report. All nine patients were immigrants from countries with high prevalence of TB and a majority had resided in the US for at least 5 years. None had clinical evidence of HIV and those that were tested were not found to be positive for HIV. Initial examination, diagnostic workup, and response to therapy were all pertinent to the management and diagnosis of these patients. Results: Three patients had atypical clinical presentations with normal chest X-rays and either negative or unknown tuberculin tests leading to delayed diagnosis and inappropriate therapy in at least one patient. With antituberculous therapy, all except for one patient had satisfactory outcomes. Immigrant patients with a diagnosis of abdominal TB had no evidence of HIV infection or other associated conditions in contrast to native-born individuals. Conclusion: Atypical presentations may cause diagnostic difficulties. Failure to perform appropriate tests may lead to inappropriate therapy with adverse outcomes. Although there is a decline in the number of TB cases in the US and screening for latent pulmonary infection in foreigners has been implemented effectively, the diagnosis of abdominal TB continues to be under diagnosed.
  3,625 387 5
Respiratory burst enzymes, pro-oxidants and antioxidants status in Bangladeshi population with β-thalassemia major
Md. Faruk Hossain, Md. Ismail, Arifur Rahman Tanu, Hossain Uddin Shekhar
June 2015, 7(6):253-258
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.159329  PMID:26199921
Background: Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including β-thalassemia. Aim: The study was to estimate the status of respiratory burst enzymes, pro-oxidants, and antioxidants in β-thalassemia major patients in Bangladesh and to compare with apparently healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 49 subjects were recruited which included 25 patients (age range 5 to 40 years) with β-thalassemia major and 24 controls (age and sex matched). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) represented respiratory burst enzymes; malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), and xanthine oxidase (XO) were measured as pro-oxidants; and glutathione S transferase (GST), vitamin C (Vit.C), and glutathione (GSH) were the measured antioxidants. Results: The activity of SOD was significantly (P < 0.001) increased by about 79% and the activity of CAT was significantly (P < 0.001) decreased by more than 34% in the blood of β-thalassemia major patients compared to the control group. The content of pro-oxidants such as MDA, LHP, and XO was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in patients by about 228%, 241.3% and 148.1% respectively compared to control group. The level of GSH and Vit.C were significantly (P = 0.000) decreased in patients by about 59% and 81% versus the healthy group, respectively; and GST activity was significantly (P < 0.001) declined by 44.25% in patients group. Conclusion: β-thalassemia major patients demonstrate raised oxidative stress compared to healthy subjects.
  3,149 303 2
Impact of carotid intima-media thickness on long-term outcome in hemodialysis patients
Munna Lal Patel, CO Radheyshyam, Amita Verma, Rekha Sachan, Ritul Kamal
June 2015, 7(6):281-287
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.159339  PMID:26199926
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on hemodialysis are highly prone to cardiovascular disease, which accounts for roughly half of the mortality in these patients. Atherosclerosis begins many years before the development of clinical manifestations. Measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a noninvasive procedure to detect early atherosclerotic changes. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between CIMT and cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate its prognostic significance in CKD patients on hemodialysis. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study carried out over a period of 18 months. Total 88 patients on hemodialysis and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Biochemical assay and CIMT was assessed using the high resolution 7.5 MHz sonography technique in all subjects. Results: Significant positive correlation was found with age, blood urea, serum creatinine, serum triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, serum phosphorus, serum calcium-phosphorus product, serum uric acid, 24 h urine protein, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and body mass index. Negative correlation was found with estimated glomerular filtration rate. Adjusted hazards ratios of all cause and cardiovascular mortality for an increase of 0.1 mm in CIMT was 1.16 (95% confidence interval 0.15-9.09). Patients with CIMT value <0.97 mm had a renal survival rate of 73.4% while patients with value >0.97 mm had a renal survival rate of 16.5%. Conclusion: Uremia is an additive risk factors in those subjects who have raised CIMT despite of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.
  2,893 312 1
Markers for sebaceoma show a spectrum of cell cycle regulators, tumor suppressor genes, and oncogenes
Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Michael S Howard, Jinah Kim, Paul B Googe
June 2015, 7(6):275-280
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.159338  PMID:26199925
Background: Sebaceoma is a tumor for which the causative oncogenes are not well-understood. Sebaceomas demonstrate some histopathologic features similar to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), such as palisading borders and basaloid cells with additional features, including foamy cytoplasm and indented nuclei. Aims: We examine multiple cell-cycle, oncogene, and tumor suppressor gene markers in sebaceomas, to try to find some suitable biological markers for this tumor, and compare with other published studies. Materials and Methods: We investigated a panel of immunohistochemical (IHC) stains that are important for cellular signaling, including a cell cycle regulator, tumor suppressor gene, oncogene, hormone receptor, and genomic stability markers in our cohort of sebaceomas. We collected 30 sebaceomas from three separate USA dermatopathology laboratories. The following IHC panel: Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA)/CD227, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, cyclin D1, human breast cancer 1 protein (BRCA-1), C-erb-2, Bcl-2, human androgen receptor (AR), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27 kip1 ), p53, topoisomerase II alpha, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and Ki-67 were tested in our cases. Results: EMA/CD227 was positive in the well-differentiated sebaceomas (13/30). Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B was positive in tumors with intermediate differentiation (22/30). The less well-differentiated tumors failed to stain with EMA and AR. Most of the tumors with well-differentiated palisaded areas demonstrated positive staining for topoisomerase II alpha, p27 kip1 , and p53, with positive staining in tumoral basaloid areas (22/30). Numerous tumors were focally positive with multiple markers, indicating a significant degree of variability in the complete group. Conclusions: Oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cell cycle regulators, and hormone receptors are variably expressed in sebaceomas. Our results suggest that in these tumors, selected marker staining seems to correlate with tumor differentiation; that is, well-differentiated tumors as a group stained with EMA and AR, and palisaded areas demonstrated consistent p53, topoisomerase II alpha and p27 kip1 staining. In contrast, less well-differentiated areas stained with a different spectrum of markers.
  2,798 235 4
Inverse correlation between serum C-reactive protein and magnesium levels in smokers and nonsmokers
Muhamamd Atif Ata, Shumaila Shabbir Shaikh, Tehseen Iqbal, Hina , Daniyal Jamil, Rabiya Khan, Masharib Basheer Qazi, Telil Riwan
June 2015, 7(6):271-274
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.159337  PMID:26199924
Background: Smoking plays a key role in increasing the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP). Aims: To examine inverse correlation between CRP and magnesium levels in smokers and nonsmokers. Materials and Methods: A total of 192 healthy adult male subjects were included in the present study, out of which 96 were smokers and the remaining 96 were nonsmokers having age range from 20 to 40 years, and all the subjects belonged to District Matyari of Hyderabad. Serum CRP was measured by NycoCard standard kit method and magnesium levels by DiaSys standard kit method in smokers and nonsmokers. Results: The levels of serum CRP in smokers (14.62 ± 0.16 mg/L) is high as compared to nonsmokers (4.81 ± 0.38 mg/L), which is highly significant (P < 0.001). However, inverse results were seen for serum magnesium levels which were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in nonsmokers (2.52 ± 0.18 mg/L) as compared to the smokers (1.09 ± 0.38 mg/dL). A significant (P < 0.001) inverse relationship between serum CRP and magnesium concentrations were seen in smokers. Conclusion: This result shows that smoking increases serum CRP, an inflammatory marker parallel to decrease in serum magnesium levels in smokers having 20-40 years of age.
  2,661 249 1
CASE REPORTS
Recalcitrant digital porokeratosis of mibelli: A successful surgical treatment
Zabihollah Shahmoradi, Hamidreza Sadeghiyan, Mohsen Pourazizi, Mina Saber, Bahareh Abtahi-Naeini
June 2015, 7(6):295-296
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157485  PMID:26199929
Context: Porokeratosis of Mibelli (PM) is a rare, benign, asymptomatic, epidermal hyperkeratinization dermatitis that is characterized by annular plaque that expands through the edges and leaves an atrophic center. Many therapies have been attempted for the treatment of PM, but none of these have given satisfactory results. The efficacies of treatment options are limited, and currently there is no gold standard. Case Report: This paper reports the case of a 22-year-old female with 3-years history of PM, who had not responded to routine therapies like topical corticosteroids, topical tretinoin, topical salicylic acid, and various emollients and keratolytic agent. Cryosurgery and laser ablation did not have acceptable response. We used surgical treatment with successful cosmetic outcome. Conclusion: The treatment of PM should be individualized considering the aesthetic and functionality, and the patient's preferences. Complete surgical excision for isolated digital PM had good results.
  2,664 238 -
Hairy cell leukemia presenting with duodenal involvement duodenum: A case report
Parijat Sen, Hamid Shaaban, Tejas Modi, Abhishek Kumar, Gunwant Guron
June 2015, 7(6):288-290
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.157489  PMID:26199927
Context: A rare case of adult hairy cell leukemia (HCL) with duodenal involvement is presented. Case Report: The patient was a 48-year-old man, who had a history of hairy cell leukemia. Three days after completion of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (CDA) chemotherapy, the patient started experiencing abdominal pain. An extensive gastroenterological workup culminated in the patient getting an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) that revealed duodenal infl ammation and biopsies were taken. The duodenal biopsy was positive for chronic inflammatory infiltrate, primarily consisting of atypical lymphocytes and plasma cells with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positivity, and hence a diagnosis of duodenal involvement with HCL was made. Repeat bone marrow biopsy done 2 weeks after finishing chemotherapy revealed residual disease. At the 3-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic with a normocellular marrow and no residual disease. Repeat abdomen computerized tomography (CT) scan at completion of therapy showed resolution of duodenal thickening and spleen size of 12 cm. Currently, patient is in clinical remission for 6 years with 4-6 monthly follow-up visits and continues to do well. Conclusion: This case is presented to highlight the first case report of HCL with duodenal involvement that was successfully treated with CDA.
  2,648 190 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Ebola paranoia in the age of the internet and social media
Ranjan Pathak, Smith Giri, Nabin Shrestha
June 2015, 7(6):297-297
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.159343  PMID:26199930
  2,124 285 -
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